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Key Implementation Steps 147 tomer time savings, improved customer service, vehicle emission reductions, or certain oper- ating costs. · Estimated implementation schedule--It is helpful for management to understand the length of time required to implement the strategy (including obtaining senior management approval) and when the expected benefits may begin to accrue. · Potential risks--Some of the strategies carry greater risk than others in terms of customer acceptance, revenue loss, or disruption to passenger service or airport operations. It is impor- tant for management to be aware of these risks. · Supporting information--Other information may be useful to management, including the airport or non-airport locations where the strategy has been used. The strategy descriptions provided in Chapter 4 include much of the above information and can be used as a starting point for these presentations to management. Estimates of costs can be developed using the material included in Appendix A, with adjustments made to reflect the local region and airport configuration. Develop an Implementation Plan The actual implementation plan will vary significantly depending on the type of the strategy selected. Implementation may include (1) construction or procurement of equipment, including hardware and software (e.g., revenue control or space guidance systems), (2) award of new busi- ness agreements (e.g., contracts with parking operators, Internet-based reservations, vehicle wash- ing and servicing), or (3) establishment of new airport policies or programs (e.g., coupons, branding, or reserved parking). Each of these strategies may require different implementation actions. · Construction or procurement of equipment--Construction of new facilities and procure- ment of equipment can be accomplished using a competitive selection process (e.g., bids or proposals), sole-source award (e.g., purchasing equipment from an approved vendor), design/build, or other processes. Competitive selections typically involve preparing (1) prelim- inary plans, (2) detailed plans, (3) detailed design specifications and cost estimates, (4) requests for bids or proposals, plus issuance, (5) contract award, (6) testing, inspection, and acceptance, (7) staff training, and (8) pubic relations and marketing. · Award of new business agreements--Award of new business agreements requires preparing and issuing requests for bids or proposals, and then subsequent award of contract and moni- toring for contract compliance. · Establishment of new airport policies or programs--The procedures for implementing new policies vary among airports and may vary further based on the seniority of the individuals responsible for recommending implementation of the strategy. At a minimum, it is useful to have a formal or informal understanding of the actions required to implement the strategy, the person(s) responsible for each of these actions or tasks, the expected duration of these tasks, and an approved budget for implementation. During the interviews with airport operators conducted as part of this research, the need for internal coordination was repeatedly identified as a key aspect of the successful implementa- tion of a parking strategy. Airport staff discussed the need to form an implementation team that included representatives from each of the affected entities (e.g., parking operations, IT, audit/accounting, public relations/marketing, and engineering/facilities maintenance) and that met on a regular basis throughout the planning and implementation of the strategy. These meetings were conducted to assure that all parties understood how the strategy would affect their organization, to identify and resolve potential concerns, and to resolve unanticipated problems that always occur during implementation of a new program or technology. Airport