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CATEGORY A: Parking Products--Duration Based A.1 Hourly/Short-Duration Parking, 18 A.2 Daily Parking, 20 A.3 Economy/Long-Duration Parking, 21 A.4 Very-Short-Duration Parking/Curbside Areas, 22 A.5 Free 30-Minute Parking, 23 A.6 Cell Phone Lots, 25 A.7 No Overnight Parking Zones, 26 A.8 Vacation Parking, 28 A.9 Holiday/Overflow Parking, 29 A.10 Parking Condominiums, 30 17

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CATEGORY A Parking Products--Duration Based A.1 Hourly/Short-Duration Parking time, to be occupied by long-duration customers because of the lower turnover rates. When long-duration parking cus- Purpose tomers occupy the most convenient spaces, short-duration Reduce curbside demand and congestion by providing customers cannot find an empty, convenient space, or must convenient parking for customers dropping off or picking up spend more time searching for a space. Short-duration cus- airline passengers and assuring that spaces are available for tomers are, therefore, likely to use the curbside if they have these customers in a designated short-duration parking area. found (or learned from other customers) that conveniently located parking spaces are unavailable, that they must walk long distances to/from the least desirable spaces (i.e., those Use by Customers located in the rear), or that they can expect to spend time Hourly or short-duration parking facilities (for parking searching for an available space. durations of less than 4 hours) are provided for customers dropping off or picking up airline passengers. By attracting Implementation Actions customers who would otherwise use the terminal curbsides, these short-duration parking areas help reduce curbside Providing a separate parking area for short-duration cus- demand and congestion, as well as circulating traffic. tomers requires the following actions by an airport operator: Because customers can stop immediately in front of the 1. Reserve the most conveniently located spaces at an airport terminal for free, hourly/short-duration parking facilities (e.g., the spaces directly opposite the primary terminal must offer an attractive alternative (see Implementation doorways or adjacent to a pedestrian crosswalk, elevated Actions). To help attract these customers and assure that con- skywalk, or pedestrian tunnel) for short-duration parking. veniently located short-duration parking spaces are available The spaces should be a short walk (ideally less than 400 ft) (see Benefits), long-duration parking customers (e.g., those from the terminal ticket counters/baggage claim area. parking for 24 hours or more) are typically discouraged from Customers should not be required to use a shuttle vehicle parking in hourly/short-duration facilities either by charging or, if possible, travel vertically without use of an escalator daily or overnight rates in the short-duration facilities that are or elevator. Hourly/short-duration parking customers are much higher than those for long-duration parking in other more sensitive to walking distances than those parking for airport facilities, or by a ban on overnight parking in the several days. short-duration facilities. Customers parking for 4 hours or less represent less than 15% of all occupied spaces at an airport, but represent a high percentage of the total transactions. This is true Benefits because the spaces occupied by short-duration customers turn over more frequently (perhaps 6 to 10 times per day) A separate parking facility for short-duration customers than those occupied by long-duration customers. Thus, rel- creates an attractive alternative to the terminal curbside areas; atively few spaces (usually less than 5%) are required for helps reduce curbside demand and congestion, as well as cir- hourly/short-duration parking compared to other airport culating traffic; and provides a high level of customer service. parking products. However, these short-duration spaces If an hourly/short-duration facility is not provided, the serve about two-thirds of all parking customers and per- most convenient parking spaces in a lot or garage tend, over haps three-quarters of all pedestrians traversing between 18

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Category A: Parking Products--Duration Based 19 parking and the terminal (which is why locating these 3. Used signage that clearly identifies the product offered spaces at the same level as ticketing/baggage claim is pre- (see Section F.7). ferred and also reduces demands on elevators or escalators). 4. Assured that the hourly/short-duration facility contains 2. Physically separate the short-duration spaces from other the most convenient spaces (i.e., a less expensive parking nearby spaces serving customers parking for longer dura- facility does not offer equivalent walking distances or lev- tions via the use of fences or barriers, or by reserving an els of convenience). entire level or lot. 5. Annually reviewed demands and trends in space occupan- 3. Provide separate entrance(s) or use a "nested" parking cies to determine when a facility is approaching capacity. area. A common exit is acceptable. Separate entrances are required to distinguish the higher-priced tickets issued to Implementation Costs hourly customers from those issued to other customers. The costs depend on whether a new hourly/short-duration 4. Establish daily parking rates (i.e., maximum rates) in the parking area is to be constructed or if an existing facility is to be hourly/short-duration area that are much higher than modified, and the size of the facility. Costs would be incurred those charged in nearby daily facilities, while charging the for building or modifying new surface or structured spaces (see same rates for the first 4 hours as those charged in other Appendix A), access control equipment (see Appendix A), and airport parking facilities. (Generally airport operators new roadway guide signs. charge the same rates for the first few hours, but some air- ports with limited capacities charge higher rates.) The average differential cost (the difference between the cost Ongoing O&M Costs of parking for 24 hours in hourly and daily facilities) is O&M costs are the same as those for other surface lots or about $20 at selected large-hub airports and about $8 at structures (see Appendix A). There are no specialized or un- medium- and small-hub airports. usual costs associated with providing hourly/short-duration Although some sources suggest that the daily rate for parking facilities. parking in hourly/short-duration facilities should be twice the rate for parking in daily facilities, it is recommended that parking rates reflect the local market and airport- Implementation Schedule specific demands and layout. Since few, if any, customers The required time for implementation depends on whether park for 24 hours in an hourly facility, it may be appropri- hourly/short-duration parking is to be provided in a new ate to establish a higher differential rate if an hourly facil- facility or if portions of an existing facility are designated for ity attracts overnight customers. Parking rates are typically this use. established by experienced airport staff, often with assis- tance from a consultant or the parking facility manage- ment company (see Section H.1). Supporting and Complementary Strategies Customer responses to parking rate changes vary based and Technologies in This Guidebook on the local economy, customer sensitivity to costs, cus- Daily Parking (A.2), tomer demographics, and other factors. Very-Short-Duration Parking/Curbside Areas (A.4), Free 30-Minute Parking (A.5), Key Considerations No Overnight Parking Zones (A.7), Hourly/short-duration parking strategies have worked Passenger Check-In Kiosks (C.6), well at airports that have Baggage Check-In (C.7), Space Availability (D.3, D.4, D.5, and D.6), and 1. Established appropriate differential parking rates. Some air- Parking Rate Adjustments (F.1). port operators have set very high maximum daily rates in their hourly parking facility (>$40/day) with the expecta- Examples of Application tion that few, if any, customers would be willing to pay this rate. Therefore, convenient spaces are always available for Many airports provide hourly/short-duration parking the true hourly/short-duration parker. However, because areas separate from adjacent daily parking facilities. Airports such high rates are often cited in the media, it is helpful, where overnight parking (or limited parking duration) in when setting rates, to explain their intended purpose and a designated portion of a daily parking area is prohibited, that the hourly rate is the same as in other facilities. thereby creating an hourly parking area, include those serving 2. Provided sufficient spaces (i.e., supply equals demand). Dallas/Fort Worth, Denver, Madison, and Salt Lake City.

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20 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies A.2 Daily Parking 4. Establish daily maximum rates (i.e., the cost for parking 24 hours) that are much lower than those charged in nearby Purpose hourly/short-duration facilities, but higher than those Provide conveniently located facilities for customers park- charged for parking in economy/long-duration facilities. ing for 1 to 3 days and who are willing to pay higher fees for The average differential cost for parking 24 hours in a daily this convenience. facility and an hourly/short-duration facility is about $20 at selected large-hub airports and about $8 at medium- and small-hub airports. The average differential cost for parking Use by Customers 24 hours in a daily facility and an economy/long-duration Daily parking spaces are typically located within walking facility is about $8 at selected large-hub airports and about distance of the terminal. At many large airports, daily spaces $5 at medium- and small-hub airports. are located in a multilevel structure opposite the terminal, Although some sources suggest that the maximum daily thereby providing covered parking for customers. Typically, rate in a daily parking facility should be half that charged those levels adjacent to pedestrian bridges or crosswalks are in an hourly/short-duration facility and twice that in an reserved for hourly/short-duration customers, with the economy facility, it is recommended that rates reflect the remainder of the structure available for daily customers. In local market, and the airport-specific demands and layout. surface lots, the daily parking areas are typically adjacent to the hourly/short-duration spaces, but farther from the terminal. Key Considerations Depending on the airport operator's customer service goals Daily parking has worked well at airports that have and revenue needs, the daily parking area (or the combined daily and hourly/short-duration areas) may contain between 1. Established appropriate differential parking rates. 20% and 60% of the total public parking spaces provided at 2. Provided sufficient spaces (i.e., supply exceeds or, at a the airport. minimum, equals demand). 3. Used product names or branding that clearly identify the product offered. Benefits 4. Assured that the level of service in the daily parking facil- The availability of separate hourly/short-duration, daily, ity (e.g., walking distances, availability of covered spaces) and economy/long-duration parking facilities offers customers is clearly differentiated from that provided in economy/ a menu of parking products with varying costs and conven- long-duration facilities. ience. Providing multiple parking products allows airport operators to manage demand by adjusting parking rates to Implementation Costs balance demand among the available parking facilities (i.e., assure that spaces are available for customers), enhance rev- The costs depend on whether a new daily parking area is enues, and operate efficiently. to be constructed or an existing facility is to be modified, and the size of the facility. Costs would be incurred for either building or modifying new surface or structured spaces (see Implementation Actions Appendix A), access control equipment (see Appendix A), Providing a separate parking area for daily customers and new roadway guide signs. requires the following actions by the airport operator: 1. Reserve conveniently located spaces on airport, located a Ongoing O&M Costs short walk from the terminal (e.g., with unassisted walk- O&M costs are the same as those for other surface lots or ing distances of 600 ft or less). Customers should not be structures (see Appendix A). There are no specialized or required to use a shuttle vehicle, but moving sidewalks are unusual O&M costs associated with providing daily parking permissible. facilities. 2. Physically separate the daily parking spaces from other nearby spaces serving customers parking for shorter or Implementation Schedule longer durations via the use of fences or barriers, or by reserving an entire level or lot. Developing a new parking structure may require 3 years 3. Provide separate entrance(s) or a "nested" parking area. A or more, while developing a new surface lot (or expand- common exit is acceptable. ing an existing lot) may take 1.5 years, including receiving

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Category A: Parking Products--Duration Based 21 prior approval from management selection and award to an business customers who rarely park during weekends. As a architect/engineer, preparation of construction documents, result, the peak demand in an economy/long-duration facility financing, bid and selection of a contractor, and actual typically occurs on weekends (or holidays), compared to the construction. midweek peaks often observed at other airport parking facili- ties. At many airports, the peak demand for economy parking Supporting and Complementary Strategies occurs during low-demand periods for daily parking. and Technologies in This Guidebook Hourly/Short-Duration Parking (A.1), Benefits Economy/Long-Duration Parking (A.3), The availability of separate hourly/short-duration, daily, Business Parking (B.5), and economy/long-duration parking facilities offers cus- All Complementary Customer Services (C), tomers a menu of parking products with varying costs and All Parking Space Availability and Guidance Systems (D), convenience. Providing multiple parking products allows air- All Cashierless Transactions (E), and port operators to better manage demand by adjusting park- All Revenue Enhancement Strategies (F). ing rates to balance demand among the available parking facilities (i.e., assure that spaces are available for customers), Examples of Application enhance revenues, and operate efficiently. Many airports provide daily parking facilities separate Implementation Actions from adjacent hourly/short-duration and economy/long- duration parking facilities. Providing a separate parking area for economy/long- duration customers requires the following actions by the air- port operator: A.3 Economy/Long-Duration 1. Locate the economy/long-duration parking area at a site Parking not required for other airport- or aviation-related uses, Purpose readily accessible to motorists (e.g., along or near a major entry road), and physically separated from spaces serving Provide an inexpensive parking product serving cus- daily parking customers. Some airports have multiple tomers parking at the airport for more than 3 days and/or economy lots because no individual site is large enough to who are more sensitive to parking costs than convenience/ provide a sufficient number of spaces. travel time. Encourage customers to park for the duration of 2. Provide separate entrance(s) or use a "nested" parking their flight, rather than being dropped off and then picked area. A common exit is acceptable. up when they return, to reduce vehicle miles traveled and vehi- 3. Establish daily maximum rates (i.e., the cost for parking cle emissions, and to attract additional customers and increase 24 hours) that are much lower than those charged in parking revenues. hourly or daily parking facilities. The average differential cost for parking 24 hours in an economy/long-duration Use by Customers facility and a daily parking facility is about $8 at large- hub airports and about $5 at medium- and small-hub Economy/long-duration parking facilities attract customers airports. who are typically more price sensitive than time sensitive. Generally, this includes those traveling on vacation or for other Key Considerations non-business purposes and customers who are not reimbursed for their parking or other travel costs. Customers using econ- Economy parking has worked well at airports that have omy/long-duration parking facilities are often provided free 1. Established appropriate differential parking rates and con- shuttle service because of the long walking distances between sidered the cost of alternative parking and airport access the parking lot and the terminal. Because of the shuttle service options. provided, these parking facilities are referred to as "shuttle 2. Provided a good level of service for customers by arranging lots" or "remote lots" at some airports. shuttle bus shelter locations to minimize customer walking Economy/long-duration parking customers, particularly distances and offering appropriate headways on shuttle non-business customers, often travel over weekends, unlike buses.

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22 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies 3. Minimized the number of cashiered exit locations (to min- Examples of Application imize staffing needs, especially during late-night hours, and Many airports provide economy/long-duration parking thus reducing operating costs). facilities. 4. Provided sufficient spaces (i.e., supply exceeds or equals demand,allowingcustomersto readily find available spaces). 5. Used names or product branding that clearly identify the A.4 Very-Short-Duration product offered (see F.7). Parking/Curbside Areas Purpose Implementation Costs Reduce curbside congestion and staff time required to The costs depend on whether a new economy parking area enforce curbside roadway operations. Introduce a new source is to be constructed or an existing facility is to be modified and of airport revenue. the size and location of the facility. Costs would be incurred for building or modifying new surface or structured spaces Use by Customers (see Appendix A), access control equipment (see Appendix A), and new roadway guide signs. If shuttle buses are required, the Very-short-duration parking/curbside areas (also known cost for providing, operating, and maintaining the buses is a as brief parking zones) are located immediately adjacent to key component of the total cost. the terminal building and replace the traditional free curbside drop-off/pickup areas. Customers enter and exit through gate-controlled lanes and, upon exiting, pay a duration-based Ongoing O&M Costs fee for the use of these "curbside" spaces. At some airports, customers whose durations at the curb were shorter than the O&M costs for economy/long-duration parking facilities prescribed limit (e.g., 10 minutes) may exit for free. Typically, are the same as those for other surface lots or structures (see payment is made using pay-on-foot stations because there are Appendix A). There are no specialized or unusual costs. no cashiers at the exits. In the past, several airport operators used parking meters Implementation Schedule mounted on the curbside roadways to help manage traffic and Developing a new parking structure may require 3 years vehicle dwell times. Today, parking meters are rarely used at or more, while developing a new surface lot (or expanding commercial service airports in North America because of the an existing lot) may take 1.5 years, including receiving prior effort (and cost) of meter enforcement, issuing tickets, and col- approval from management to selection and award to an lecting the coins from each meter. Very-short-duration park- ing areas represent an alternative approach to using parking architect/engineer, preparation of construction documents, meters to control curbside areas. financing, bid and selection of a contractor, actual construc- tion, and acquisition of buses, if needed. If desired, separate lanes or parking areas can be provided for private and commercial vehicles, with authorized auto- matic vehicle identification (AVI) tags or other devices Supporting and Complementary Strategies enabling access. At some European airports (e.g., Charles de and Technologies in This Guidebook Gaulle International in France and Munich Airport in Ger- Hourly/Short-Duration Parking (A.1), many), the very-short-duration parking areas are the only Daily Parking (A.2), drop-off/pickup options available to customers at the termi- nal and have completely replaced traditional curbsides. Loyalty Programs (C.5), Passenger Check-In Kiosks (C.6), Baggage Check-In (C.7), Benefits Pet Kennels (C.8), These very-short-term parking areas at curbside encourage Shaded Spaces (C.9 and C.10), the use of hourly/short-duration parking by eliminating the Space Availability Prior to Arrival (D.1 and D.2) and by Facil- free curbside alternative. The number (and cost) of traffic ity (D.3) (other space guidance systems are appropriate if a control staff required to enforce curbside roadway operations multilevel structure is being considered), is reduced and the length of time vehicles remain stopped at All Cashierless Transactions (E), and the curbsides is monitored. An additional source of airport All Revenue Enhancement Strategies (F). revenue is created.

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Category A: Parking Products--Duration Based 23 Implementation Actions Implementation actions by the airport operator include 1. Assess whether the airport's federal security director will allow unattended vehicles in an area adjacent to the terminal. 2. Assess the likely response of the traveling public to the removal of free curbside areas. Review and evaluate poten- tial responses with senior airport management and political representatives. 3. Determine if the gate-controlled very-short-duration park- ing area(s), required bypass lane, and adjacent pay-on-foot station can be implemented on the curbside roadway(s) Source: Jacobs Consultancy. considering the roadway width, utility and drainage struc- Figure A.4. Charles de Gaulle International Airport. ture locations, and traffic volumes. 4. Determine if the hourly/short-duration parking area has sufficient capacity to accommodate the traffic diverted Implementation Schedule from the curbsides. 5. Proceed with selection and award to an architect/engineer, No information was available on the total time required for preparation of construction documents, financing, bid implementation at Charles de Gaulle International Airport and selection of a contractor, and construction. (including prior approval from management, vendor selec- 6. In advance of initiating this product, develop and conduct tion, marketing, planning, construction, and startup), but a public outreach/public relations program explaining the construction required only a few weeks at each terminal. purpose of the new very-short-duration parking area. Supporting and Complementary Strategies Key Considerations and Technologies in This Guidebook Very-short-duration parking/curbside areas have been Hourly/Short-Duration Parking (A.1) and most successfully implemented at European airports that have Valet Parking--Curbside Drop-Off/Pickup with Airline Check-In (B.2). 1. Incorporated the very-short-duration parking area into the original design (e.g., Terminal 2 at Munich Airport). Examples of Application 2. Reconfigured an existing curbside roadway (e.g., Ter- minal 2 at Charles de Gaulle International Airport). How- Examples of airports with very-short-duration parking ever, the staff at Charles de Gaulle reported that customers areas are Terminal 2 at Charles de Gaulle International Air- have had difficulty adjusting to the "Depose Minute" as it port (Depose Minute) and Terminal 2 at Munich Airport is known, and motorcyclists drive around the gate arms. (Haltezone). (See Figure A.4.) Implementation Costs The primary costs at Charles de Gaulle International Airport A.5 Free 30-Minute Parking were the new revenue control equipment (gate arms, pay-on- Purpose foot stations, and lane dividers). At Charles de Gaulle, the reported cost was about 50,000 (about US $75,000) per ter- Reduce curbside demands and congestion, as well as circu- minal building per level. No data were available for the brief lating traffic, by allowing customers dropping off or picking parking (Haltezone) portion of Terminal 2 at Munich Airport. up airline passengers to park for free for 30 minutes. Improve customer perception of the airport. Ongoing O&M Costs Use by Customers O&M costs are estimated to be similar to the costs for sim- ilar parking revenue control equipment installed at standard Customers exiting a parking facility within the first 30 min- parking lots. utes of entry are not charged parking fees. This service attracts

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24 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies motorists who would otherwise use the curbside areas and Resulted in a "sharp reduction" in parking revenues. (At reduces curbside demands and congestion. Free parking may this time, no data are available on the actual change in be offered in any parking facility, but most often is offered in parking revenues.) hourly/short-duration or daily facilities. Had minimal effect on curbside traffic or congestion, although traffic officers appreciated the ability to direct The length of time free parking (or grace period) is offered curbside motorists to the free 60-minute parking area may be any duration selected by the airport operator, but is rather than asking them to leave the curbside area. How- typically 30 minutes or 60 minutes. Customers who exit after ever, the officers did not perceive a significant difference in 30 minutes of entry are charged the posted parking rate (e.g., traffic volumes or patterns. customers exiting during the second half hour or any portion thereof are charged the posted rate for 31 to 60 minutes). Implementation Actions Implementation actions by airport operators as identified Benefits by airport operators who have implemented this strategy The reported benefits include include Reduced curbside congestion and circulating traffic 1. Select the grace period and the rate to be used for the sub- volumes. sequent time increments. The most commonly used grace Helped the traffic officers responsible for curbside traffic period is 30 minutes. The rate for the subsequent time control and enforcement (and improved customer com- increments should reflect the same fees that would be pliance with this enforcement) by allowing officers to charged if there was no grace period. That is, if the airport direct curbside motorists to a free parking area. parking rate is $1 for each 30-minute increment, the rate Improved customer service. Some airport operators believe for parking between 31 and 60 minutes should continue that the local public perception of the airport and its park- to be $2, not $1. ing facilities benefit from the availability of 30-minute free 2. Modify all signage, websites, and other material displaying parking. parking rates to reflect the new rate structure. Airport operators that have established 30-minute free 3. Develop and implement a promotional package to inform parking have reported increased customer complaints due to the local community that free parking is available for customers who (1) felt that the grace period did not allow durations up to 30 minutes. them sufficient time to walk between the parking area and the 4. Coordinate with curbside traffic officers and enforcement terminal and to assist or meet a passenger, (2) were unable to officers so that they may direct motorists to the free park- exit within the allotted grace period because of exit delays, or ing area. (3) believe that the 30 minutes' grace period should apply to 5. Develop and train staff in procedures for responding to all time increments, and that they should, for example, be anticipated customer complaints. charged for 1.5 hours if they parked for 2 hours. Key Considerations Providing the first 30 minutes of parking for free reduces total revenues. Depending on airport demographics and Key considerations identified by airport operators include parking activity patterns, parking durations of 30 minutes or 1. The length of the grace period should reflect the length of less may represent approximately 2% of total parking rev- time customers need to walk between the parking facility enue, and approximately 5% of the revenue from a daily and the terminal, and to assist/greet passengers. parking garage. 2. Assure that signs and other information where parking In 2000, in response to a request from the Port Commis- rates are displayed clearly indicate the rates to be charged sion, the Port of Seattle offered free 60-minute parking in the customers remaining for longer than the established grace multilevel parking structure at Seattle-Tacoma International period. Airport on a trial basis. Eventually, the Port discontinued the free 60-minute parking program because staff determined Implementation Costs that it The primary costs associated with providing a 30-minute Led to a large number of customer complaints and created grace period are any required modifications to the signs, web- a severe problem for the operations staff/cashiers who had sites, and other materials where parking rates are posted, and to respond to these complaints. any revenues that the airport may forego.

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Category A: Parking Products--Duration Based 25 Ongoing O&M Costs Cell phone lots are typically located in parking lots that provide easy vehicular access from the main airport entry The most significant recurring cost is the parking rev- road and to the terminal building, but are not within walking enue foregone as a result of the provision of free 30-minute distance of the terminal. Remote sites are preferred to dis- parking. courage use of the lots by short-duration or long-duration customers. Cell phone lots at some airports contain public Implementation Schedule toilets, flight information displays (FIDs), and other cus- tomer amenities. At Huntsville International Airport, a flash- Implementation, including receiving approval from man- ing light is activated when a customer has exceeded the time agement, vendor selection, marketing, planning, construc- limit in the lot. tion and startup, may require 2 months or less, depending on the time required to modify signs and other materials. Benefits Supporting and Complementary Strategies Specific benefits identified by airport parking operators and Technologies in This Guidebook include Hourly/Short-Duration Parking (A.1) and Reduced recirculating traffic volumes. Daily Parking (A.2). Potentially reduced curbside congestion and vehicle emissions. Supported curbside enforcement by enabling traffic offi- Examples of Application cers to direct motorists to a free waiting area. Eliminated improper parking along shoulders of airport U.S. airports with free 30-minute parking include those entry roads and enforced parking restrictions in these areas. serving Charlottesville, Kansas City, Memphis, Milwaukee, Mobile, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, Sarasota, and Tulsa. Some airport operators expressed concern that a cell phone Examples of airports where 30-minute free parking was pro- lot would reduce parking revenues by diverting customers who vided and then eliminated include those serving Des Moines would otherwise park in an hourly lot. San Antonio Interna- and Seattle-Tacoma. tional Airport staff determined that cell phone lots cause min- imal revenue loss because few customers use the 30-space cell phone lot, and few of those customers would have otherwise A.6 Cell Phone Lots paid for parking. Purpose Implementation Actions Reduce demand and congestion at the arrivals/pickup curbside area and reduce the volume of recirculating traffic Implementation actions identified by airport operators by providing a free parking area, away from the terminal area, include where motorists may wait for arriving airline passengers. 1. Select a site that accommodates 20 to 60 vehicles, is located along the major terminal access road, and provides for easy wayfinding to the terminal curbsides. The site should Use by Customers not be within walking distance of the terminal. A cell phone lot (also referred to as a "cell phone waiting 2. Design and construct the site. Airport operators frequently lot," "park and call zone," etc.) provides an area where use paved areas that are no longer being used for their orig- motorists can park for free for a maximum of typically 60 min- inal purpose. As noted, some airports provide minimal utes and wait for a cell phone call from family or friends customer amenities while others provide FIDs. announcing their arrival at the terminal, at which time they 3. Promote use of the cell phone lot. At Milwaukee General drive to the curbside passenger pickup area. At some airports, Mitchell International Airport, the airport operator pro- motorists are often required to stay with their vehicles in the vided a gift bag with a cell phone containing prepaid cell phone lot, while other airports provide cell phone waiting minutes plus cell phone accessories to the first user of a lots adjacent to coffee kiosks, convenience stores, or retail areas cell phone lot. To cite another example, the operator of in order to attract waiting customers to purchase goods or Charlotte Douglas International Airport sold the naming products. rights for the airport's cell phone lot.

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26 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Key Considerations Key considerations identified by airport operators include 1. The cell phone lot should not be located within walking distance of the terminal. 2. The cell phone lot and the route from the lot to the terminal should be easy to find. Few customers will use an out-of-the- way site requiring multiple turns, even with good signage. 3. The cost should reflect the goals and needs of the airport operator. To gauge customer response, some airport oper- ators begin with a low-cost (in consideration of the return on investment) pilot program using an existing lot (or unpaved lot), while others have provided FIDs and other amenities from the outset. Source: Jacobs Consultancy. 4. There should be coordination with traffic enforcement Figure A.6. Salt Lake City International Airport. officers to assure that curbside motorists can be easily directed to the cell phone lot. 5. Consideration should be given to co-locating the cell Examples of Application phone lot with an on-airport service station or conven- More than 40 airports have cell phone lots. Those with FIDs ience store. and other high-end amenities include Phoenix Sky Harbor and 6. The provision of 30 minutes free parking (see A.5) is Salt Lake City International Airports. (See Figure A.6.) Denver another way of introducing the same customer service. International Airport management plans to relocate the airport However, providing both 30 minutes free parking and a cell phone lot to a new retail development adjacent to the air- cell phone lot at the same airport may be a duplication of port entry. customer services. Implementation Costs A.7 No Overnight Parking Zones The primary costs associated with providing a cell phone lot are: (1) any required modifications to an existing surface Purpose parking lot or construction of a new parking lot including Reduce curbside demand and congestion by providing signage and desired amenities (see Appendix A), and (2) the convenient parking for customers dropping off or picking up marketing and promotional program. airline passengers and assuring that conveniently located spaces are available for these customers in a designated area. Ongoing O&M Costs Use by Customers O&M costs are for maintaining a surface parking lot, any amenities provided, and security patrols if the lot is remotely No overnight parking zones are a form of hourly or short- located. (See Appendix A.) duration parking facilities (A.1). The key differences between these parking products are Implementation Schedule 1. Use of enforcement rather than rates to discourage daily customers. In no overnight parking zones, signs are posted Implementation receiving prior approval from airport indicating that vehicles parked for long durations are tick- management includes site selection. Construction may eted or towed, while in hourly/short-duration areas, cus- require 3 to 12 months depending on whether or not new tomers parking for long durations are charged much construction is required. higher rates than they would be in daily parking areas. 2. Avoidance of the need to physically separate the spaces allo- Supporting and Complementary Strategies cated for short-duration customers from daily customers. Signs limiting duration can be posted at any location, elim- and Technologies in This Guidebook inating the need for separate levels or nested areas having None were identified. separate entries and exits.

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Category A: Parking Products--Duration Based 27 Other aspects of hourly/short-duration parking are the same for no overnight parking zones, which provide conve- niently located spaces for use by customers dropping off or picking up airline passengers (i.e., with durations less than 4 hours) who would otherwise use the terminal curbsides. Benefits A separate facility for short-duration customers creates an attractive alternative to the terminal curbside areas, and helps reduce curbside demand and congestion, as well as circulat- ing traffic volumes. Without a separate facility for short-duration customers, the most convenient spaces in a lot or garage tend, over time, Source: Jacobs Consultancy. to be occupied by long-duration customers. (See A.1 for addi- Figure A.7. Salt Lake City International Airport. tional information.) As a result, if customers find (or learn from other customers) that conveniently located parking spaces are unavailable, that they must walk long distances Some airport operators have used no overnight park- to/from the least desirable spaces, and/or that they can expect ing zones with minimal enforcement. The extent of the to waste time searching for an empty space, short-duration enforcement/ticketing required appears to be related to customers are more likely to use the terminal curbside areas. the availability of parking in nearby daily areas, and the general compliance of local motorists with traffic signage Implementation Actions and regulations. 5. Coordinate with airport police or traffic control officers to Providing a separate parking area for short-duration cus- assure that adequate staff are assigned to enforcement, and tomers by establishing a no overnight parking zone requires that these efforts receive the desired priority. the following actions by the airport operator: 1. Designate the most conveniently located spaces for short- Key Considerations duration customers. Such spaces include those located No overnight parking zones have worked well at airports directly opposite the primary terminal doorways or adjacent to a pedestrian crosswalk, skywalk, or tunnel. The spaces that have should be a short walk from the terminal ticket counters/ 1. Obtained the cooperation and support of the enforce- baggage claim area. Customers should not be required to ment officers and confirm that these officers are allocated ride a shuttle vehicle. sufficient time to regularly enforce the designated limits. 2. Designate sufficient spaces to accommodate expected However, as noted, some airports have found that little demand. Customers parking for 4 hours or less typically enforcement of no overnight parking zones is required. account for less than 5% of all occupied spaces at an airport. 2. Confirmed that the posted signs are legally enforceable. Therefore, relatively few spaces are required to accommo- 3. Used clearly visible signage and designated a zone or area date short-duration customers. rather than isolated spaces. 3. Install enforceable, regulatory signage stating No Overnight 4. Used a contract towing service, and installed signs indicat- Parking or 2-Hour Parking, and Vehicles Will Be Towed at ing the contact information to retrieve towed vehicles. Owner's Expense, at the designated spaces. In some com- munities, in order to be legally enforceable, this signage (or Use of frequent ticketing and towing generally creates a the parking regulations) must be approved or authorized negative customer service experience compared to the other by a regulatory agency. (See Figure A.7.) alternatives for providing dedicated spaces for customers park- 4. Enforce the posted regulations by ticketing or towing vehi- ing for short durations. cles on a regular basis. Customers will tend to overstay the posted limits if they perceive that they are not enforced. Implementation Costs Enforcing overnight parking prohibitions requires less effort than enforcing time-based prohibitions, as enforcement Costs are incurred for installing the required regulatory staff need only patrol the designated spaces once a day. signage, at about $100 per space.

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28 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Ongoing O&M Costs parking lots are the least conveniently located parking areas at an airport. These lots may be located near terminal build- The primary O&M cost is the enforcement of the desig- ings serving charter flights and discount/low-fare airlines. nated limits, which depends on the frequency with which offi- cers patrol the area and the enforcement measure (e.g., tickets At vacation lots, customers may be charged a flat weekly rate and towing). (thereby discouraging use by customers staying for shorter durations). Discounts offered are even greater than those offered at other lots that promote Free Parking for the Seventh Implementation Schedule Day or similar discounts. The time required for implementation depends on whether At Charles de Gaulle International Airport in Paris, no the spaces selected for no overnight parking are to be located shuttle bus service is available for the vacation lot, resulting in in a new facility or portions of an existing facility designated minimum walking distances of over 1,000 ft. At Germany's for this use. The time required to designate spaces or a zone Munich Airport, the vacation parking area is located much in an existing facility may be less than 2 months, depending farther from the terminal than are the other parking products. on the time required to obtain management's approval and to have the appropriate regulatory authority for implementing Although vacation parking sites are typically more remote these parking limits. and less convenient than other parking products, the primary difference between these lots and economy or remote park- ing lots is the rate structure. Supporting and Complementary Strategies and Technologies in This Guidebook Benefits Daily Parking (A.2), Very-Short-Duration Parking/Curbside Areas (A.4), Benefits are improved service for participating customers Free 30-Minute Parking (A.5), and potentially increased parking revenues. Specific benefits Passenger Check-In Kiosks (C.6), identified by airport parking operators include Baggage Check-In (C.7), Increased market share and revenues. Additional revenues Space Availability (D.3, D.4, D.5, and D.6), and may result from attracting price-sensitive customers (e.g., Parking Rate Adjustments (F.1). those parking for long durations and traveling on low-cost discount or charter flights) who might otherwise select Examples of Application privately owned parking facilities or use drop-off/pickup or Airports that prohibit overnight parking (or limit parking other travel modes. durations) in a designated portion of a daily parking area, Provision of a parking option for customers whose cost for thereby creating an hourly area, include those serving Dallas/ parking would otherwise exceed their airfares. The avail- Fort Worth, Denver, Madison, Phoenix, and Salt Lake City. ability of vacation parking lots expands the selection of parking products and may induce potential customers to consider other, more convenient products. Accomplishment of other goals while minimizing risk of A.8 Vacation Parking reduced revenues. The use of flat weekly rates minimizes Purpose the change in revenues. In addition, customers parking for a week typically generate about 15% to 20% of total rev- Attract price-sensitive, long-duration customers, such as enue, and those parking for 2 weeks or more generate less those traveling on vacations, who would otherwise not choose than 3% of total revenues. to park at the airport, by offering deeply discounted parking rates. Implementation Actions Implementation actions identified by airport operators Use by Customers include Vacation parking lots are intended for customers parking 1. Select and develop the preferred site. Cashierless technolo- for durations of more than 1 or 2 weeks. Compared to econ- gies are particularly appropriate because the low hourly omy or other reduced-rate parking lots, customers are offered entering/exiting volumes may not justify staffed exits. lower parking rates and lower levels of convenience. Vacation 2. Market and promote the product.

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Category A: Parking Products--Duration Based 29 Key Considerations exceeds the numbers of available spaces. It is not financially feasible to construct and maintain structured parking spaces These include the extent of the potential market and the or other conveniently located spaces to accommodate peak availability of airport property for use as long-duration parking demands that occur fewer than 10 days per year, and perhaps areas. only during a few hours on those days. Therefore, airport oper- ators develop and operate holiday/overflow parking areas. Implementation Costs Customers are directed to these areas by signs (and opera- The costs depend on whether a new parking area is to be tions staff) indicating that limited or no spaces are available constructed or if an existing facility is to be modified and the in the primary parking areas and advising customers of the size of the facility. Costs include building or modifying new availability of these alternative facilities. spaces and the provision of access control equipment (see Often the parking rates in holiday/overflow lots are lower Appendix A), and new roadway guide signs. than those in daily or economy lots because the holiday/over- flow lots are less conveniently located, provide less frequent Ongoing O&M Costs shuttle bus service, and offer fewer amenities. O&M costs are the same as those for other economy lots (see Appendix A). No specialized or unusual costs would be Benefits incurred. Benefits are improved customer service (avoids turning customers away), potentially increased parking revenues, and Implementation Schedule efficient operations. Specific benefits identified by airport parking operators include Development of a new vacation parking lot (or expansion of an existing lot) may require 3 to 6 months, including Enhanced service to a market primarily composed of infre- receiving prior approval from management depending on use quent, long-duration travelers (e.g., those traveling for non- of an existing or new lot, and the extent of the marketing and business purposes) who may not have allowed sufficient promotion program. time to seek parking or considered that airport parking facil- ities, like airport terminals, are extremely busy during these times, and who would be severely inconvenienced if they Supporting and Complementary Strategies spent excessive time searching for an empty space or were and Technologies in This Guidebook unable to park at the airport. All Cashierless Transactions (E) and Deferred construction of daily or economy parking facili- All Revenue Enhancement Strategies (F). ties. Because they are used infrequently, holiday or over- flow lots are often built using lower design standards and Examples of Application have less expensive pavement structures, shelter, and other amenities that would not otherwise be used. Airports with vacation parking facilities include those serv- Reduced operating costs. Typically, holiday/overflow lots ing Brussels, Paris (Charles de Gaulle), and Munich, as well are served by less frequent shuttle bus service, and may as some privately operated lots in North America. require longer walks to shuttle bus stops/shelters. Facilitated use of flat rates. Some airport operators estab- lish flat daily rates for holiday or overflow parking areas or A.9 Holiday/Overflow Parking collect a flat fee upon entry (or a fee based on the customer's estimated trip duration or an honor system), thereby avoid- Purpose ing or minimizing cashier costs and simplifying the required Accommodate rarely occurring peak parking demands revenue control equipment. though the use of a temporary lot or a lot opened only during holiday periods. Implementation Actions Implementation actions identified by airport operators Use by Customers include Most airports experience peak parking demand during 1. Identify a potential site. Ideally, the holiday/overflow lot spring break or the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays that will be located on an existing paved or improved surface,

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30 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies or the future site of a parking lot or airfield pavement Examples of Application area. 2. Establish parking rates and a method of fee collection. Many airports provide holiday/overflow parking areas. 3. Establish a method of informing customers when the lot is open. 4. If the lot is to remain open for a brief period only (e.g., A.10 Parking Condominiums 2 to 3 weeks), establish a method of notifying customers: (a) where they can board the specialized shuttle service Purpose upon return to the airport, (b) when the shuttle bus service Provide secure, covered parking for customers wishing to will cease and the alternative transportation service that leave their vehicles at or near the airport for several months will be available, and (c) when towing or removal of vehi- and who are willing to enter into a long-term lease for a per- cles that remain in the lot after a specified date will begin. sonal garage. Generate new revenues for the airport. Key Considerations Use by Customers Those identified by airport operators include Parking condominiums are enclosed, secure, climate- 1. Implementing a method of directing customers to the controlled personal garages that customers lease (or pur- holiday/overflow lot. chase) for extended periods (e.g., 5, 10, or 20 years). They are 2. Determining actions to implement upon closure of the lot primarily intended for use by second-home owners (i.e., at the end of the holiday season. owners of ski lodges or summer homes located within 60 to 3. Selecting a site that is accessible and not required for other 100 miles of an airport) seeking easy access to their cars once uses on a regular or priority basis. their flights land. Parking condominiums are also used by fre- 4. Providing temporary shuttle bus operations, schedule, quent flyers and executives wishing to park their vehicles in and stop designations. secure, covered spaces for long durations. (See Figures A.10a through A.10d.) Owners are provided shuttle service to Implementation Costs and from the terminals and, at some locations, access to a The costs depend on whether an existing or new surface lot clubhouse offering beverages and airline information. Auto- is to be used, and the design standards to be used. Costs include mobile servicing, fueling, and cleaning are typically available pavement, signage, striping, shelters, fencing, entry/exit con- as well. trols, and directional roadway signs. (See Appendix A.) There Parking condominiums cost between $15,000 and $40,000 are opportunities to use alternative pavement materials and at Denver International Airport and between $40,000 and thickness. $110,000 at a site near Salt Lake City International Airport, depending on the size of the unit. Ultimately, the Denver Ongoing O&M Costs site will hold 347 units (62 were built initially), while 325 units are proposed for Salt Lake City, and 130 are located at Kalispell O&M costs are lower than those for other surface lots as (MT). A 1-acre parcel can accommodate 60 to 65 garage units. the lot is used on a temporary basis and fewer amenities are offered. (See Appendix A.) Benefits Implementation Schedule Ability to increase airport revenue by offering a desired parking product. Specific identified benefits include The required time for implementation depends on whether the holiday/overflow lot is a new facility or an existing facility Provide a product (secure, covered, ultra-long-duration being reused. vehicle storage) desired by a customer market composed primarily of resident frequent flyers and wealthy, non- resident passengers owning second homes nearby. These Supporting and Complementary Strategies customers may not be able to store their vehicles at the air- and Technologies in This Guidebook port because airports typically do not allow customers to Daily Parking (A.2) and park their vehicles at the airport for more than 30 days All Cashierless Transactions (E). without prior approval.

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Category A: Parking Products--Duration Based 31 (a) (b) (c) (d) Source: AirportResortParking.com. Figure A.10. (a) Parking condominiums at Denver International Airport. (b) View of overall airport parking con- dominium development. (c) Parking condominium interior. (d) Parking condominium development site vicinity. Generate new revenues as a result of fees paid by the con- 3. Prepare and issue a Request for Information (RFI) to gather cessionaire selected to construct and operate the parking information about prospective developers and their inter- condominiums. Typically, the concessionaire pays ground est in the opportunity. rent either for the entire site or that portion of the site 4. Prepare and issue Instructions for Bids (IFB) or a Request occupied by the parking garages as well as a percentage of for Proposals (RFP), or enter into negotiations with their gross revenues. The revenues paid to the airport are a a preferred developer. Consideration should be given function of the annual ground rent, which may vary from to the business terms of the agreement since it is unlikely $0.50 to $0.77 per square foot, resulting in annual rent of that a percentage of gross revenues will be acceptable $21,800 to $33,500. to the developer due to the long-term nature of the proj- ect and the sale of the condominiums. Airport enter- Implementation Actions prises have typically relied on ground rents for these agreements. Implementation actions include 1. Determine if a market exists for such parking condomini- Key Considerations ums--are there many second homes, particularly in high- This strategy has worked well at airports that have end resort communities, located near the airport? 2. Identify available site(s) not reserved for future uses. The site 1. Available sites not needed for aviation-related uses. The should be capable of accommodating at least 30 parking site(s) need not be located near the terminal or the main condominiums, each a minimum of 15 ft wide by 24 ft long. access roads.

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32 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies 2. A potential market. See prior comments regarding prox- Implementation Schedule imity to high-end resorts containing a large number of Implementation (including prior approval from senior second homes. management, vendor selection, marketing, planning, con- 3. Helped market or allowed cross-marketing of the product struction, and start-up) may require 3 to 6 months. by, for example, providing a link on the airport website. Supporting and Complementary Strategies Implementation Costs and Technologies in This Guidebook The primary costs are staff time associated with (1) prepar- Secure Parking and Secure Parking with Valet Service ing and reviewing RFIs, IFBs, or RFPs, and (2) follow-on con- (B.13) and tract administration. Vehicle Washing and Servicing (C.1). Examples of Application Ongoing O&M Costs Parking condominiums are provided on or near the air- Costs are negligible, since all design, construction, and ports serving Boise (ID); Butte, Great Falls, Kalispell, and ongoing O&M costs are the responsibility of the concession- Missoula (MT); Denver, Steamboat Springs, and Vail (CO); aire. At some airports, the concessionaire contracts with a local Phoenix (AZ); Salt Lake City (UT); and Spokane (WA). Park- fixed-base operator (FBO) or other party to provide the on- ing condominiums are proposed on or near the airports serv- demand, 24-hour shuttle service. However, at some other air- ing Bend (OR) and Sarasota (FL). The condominiums are ports, the condominiums are located within walking distance operated by several companies, including Airport Resort of the terminal. Parking LLC; Airport Garages, Inc.; and USA Garage Condos.