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Overview of the Guidebook 3 Source: FAA, AAS-400, CATS, Report Form 5100-127. Figure 1.1. Revenue sources at U.S. airports. nal rents, and other charges and (2) concessionaires and other non-airline tenants (e.g., in- terminal food and retail concessions, rental car companies, ground transportation providers, and public parking facilities). As shown in Figure 1.1, the single largest revenue source at U.S. airports is usually public parking, representing approximately 25% of all airport revenues and more than 40% of non-airline revenues. Often, surplus revenues generated from public park- ing provide cash flow to support other airport functions (e.g., general aviation, public areas of terminals) that either generate no income or require subsidies. Surplus parking revenues also represent the single largest source of debt-free cash flow to fund airport capital improvements. At some airports, parking revenues are shared with the airlines, which helps attract new airline service or maintain existing service by reducing airline costs. Larger parking facilities required. Typically, over 1,000 parking spaces are provided at commercial-service airports, and over 15,000 public spaces are provided at several large-hub airports. Most of the very large parking structures in the United States (e.g., those with over 5,000 spaces) are on airport grounds. These large parking facilities are required to accommodate the needs of airline passengers traveling in private vehicles (typically over 70% of all passengers) and those who park at the airport for multiple days. Large amount of revenue handled. Annual parking revenues are frequently over $10 million at small-hub airports and over $100 million at the largest airports. Although all parking operators strive to minimize theft and fraud, this objective is particularly important to airport operators because of the magnitude of the revenues, their importance to airport operations, and the neg- ative implications (and potential high profile) of theft or fraud associated with such losses in a public agency. Therefore, airport parking operators often use state-of-the art procedures and technologies to protect and control their revenues. Methodology The information contained in this guidebook was gathered by identifying innovative parking strategies and technologies, and then conducting interviews with nearly 100 individuals and agencies familiar with the strategies. Those interviewed included employees at airports in the United States, Canada, and Europe; parking equipment manufacturers and vendors; private parking operators; parking consultants; and others. The information contained in the interviews