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CATEGORY B: Value-Added Parking Products B.1 Valet Parking--Curbside Drop-Off/Pickup, 34 B.2 Valet Parking--Curbside Drop-Off/Pickup with Airline Check-In, 35 B.3 Valet Parking--Non-Curbside Drop-Off/Pickup, 37 B.4 Valet Parking--Customer Transported to/from Airport in Shuttle Van, 39 B.5 Business Parking, 40 B.6 Monthly Billing--Pay per Use, 42 B.7 Reserved Parking Zone--Pay per Use, 43 B.8 Guaranteed Space--Unlimited Use, 44 B.9 Validated Parking--Retail, 46 B.10 Validated Parking--Park-Sleep-Fly, 47 B.11 XXL (Extra Large) Parking, 48 B.12 Parking for Ladies and Families, 49 B.13 Secure Parking and Secure Parking with Valet Service, 51 33

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CATEGORY B Value-Added Parking Products B.1 Valet Parking--Curbside More efficient storage of vehicles/less space required per Drop-Off/Pickup vehicle compared to self-parking. Valet attendants park vehicles in smaller stalls (i.e., less space between vehicles) Purpose or tandem spaces (since the operator knows which vehicles Improve customer service by allowing customers, who are need to be retrieved first), and can park these vehicles where willing to pay higher fees, to drop off and pick up their vehi- they can be readily accessed. cles at the terminal curbside. Opportunity to use sites on airport property that are other- wise ill suited for parking or high-priority aviation uses to accommodate a high-value parking product. Valet vehicles Use by Customers can be stored in any secure location and need not be stored Customers using valet parking with curbside drop-off and at sites that are easily accessible by motorists or conveniently pickup (i.e., traditional valet parking), leave their vehicles located near the terminal building. with an attendant located at the terminal curbside or other Improved gross revenues as a result of the higher fees paid convenient area, and upon their return to the airport, retrieve by valet customers (versus self-parkers). their vehicles at the same or another convenient location. Opportunity to supplement standard parking products during periods of construction, unusually high demand, or Customers' vehicles are stored securely at a nearby or other periods when available public parking inventory may remote location, and then driven back to the designated be temporarily insufficient. pickup area by valet staff prior to the customer's arrival. The operator of the valet service maintains possession of the cus- Implementation Actions tomers' keys so that the vehicles can be moved to/from the storage area. Implementation actions identified by airport operators that decided to offer this service after evaluating the new net Traditional valet parking is considered a premium prod- revenues resulting from a valet parking service include uct, with parking rates that are generally higher than the cost of self-parking at covered, close-in parking facilities. 1. Select a curbside area where customers can drop off and pick up their vehicles. Often this is an underutilized por- To avoid potential disputes regarding damages or scratches tion of the terminal curbside so as not to displace the pri- to the customer's vehicle, operators of valet parking services mary curbside areas. Although the drop-off and pickup often require that customers sign an inspection form when areas are often located at the same site, they need not be, dropping off their vehicles, or otherwise photograph/record however, providing separate sites may increase labor costs the vehicles' appearance. depending on how unattended cars are secured. 2. Determine how much curbside should be reserved for Benefits valet use. The amount of space required is a function of the anticipated business volume/maximum number of The reported benefits include cars parked at the curbside, the distance to/from the vehi- Improved customer service and satisfaction--particularly cle storage area, and whether double parking is allowed. for business travelers or others willing to pay higher fees for For initial planning, space for 5 to 10 vehicles is adequate the convenience of valet parking. at most airports. 34

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Category B: Value-Added Parking Products 35 3. Select a secure site for long-term vehicle storage accom- anticipation of an arriving passenger who is delayed) and modating 50 to 100 vehicles (or more depending on the consider local security regulations. potential market). The location of the vehicle storage area has a major effect on customer service (response time) and Implementation Costs costs of operations (number of staff required to shuttle the vehicles to/from the storage area). The primary costs are (1) staff costs associated with adver- 4. Select a third-party contractor to operate the valet service. tising and selecting a third-party contractor and then over- Airport operators, even those that operate their public seeing the contractor and (2) any net parking revenues that parking facilities, generally retain a third-party contractor the airport may forego because of the migration of customers to operate valet service because of the liability associated from close-in parking to valet parking. with moving customer vehicles. The valet contractor can be the same contractor operat- Ongoing O&M Costs ing the airport's public parking services or a contractor The primary ongoing O&M costs are oversight of the specializing in valet parking operations. Most often, the contractor. contactor is retained using a management agreement (i.e., the contractor is reimbursed for its costs plus a manage- ment fee), but some airport operators retain a contractor Implementation Schedule using a concession contract (i.e., the contractor pays the Implementation (including receiving management approval, airport a percentage of the gross revenues plus a guaran- site selection, and selection and award of contract to a third- teed amount). party operator) may require 6 months or less, depending on the 5. Market the service. The availability of the valet parking time required to select and award a new contract. service needs to be well publicized. Key Considerations Supporting and Complementary Strategies and Technologies in This Guidebook Those identified by airport operators include Vehicle Washing and Servicing (C.1), 1. Valet parking typically generates lower net revenues than Concierge Services (C.2), traditional parking. The higher gross revenues from valet Onsite Sale of Food, Beverages, and Other Products (C.3), parking are typically offset by higher costs for (a) labor Loyalty Programs (C.5), (e.g., full-time curbside attendants plus adequate staff to Web-Based Reservations (F.3), and move the vehicles between the drop-off/pickup areas and Yield Management (F.4). the storage locations), (b) increased liability because of the risk associated with moving customer vehicles, and Examples of Application (c) marketing. As a result, most airport operators report that more net revenue per space can be generated by Airports with traditional valet parking include those serving close-in self-parking than if these spaces are used for Burbank, Dallas/Fort Worth, Denver, Honolulu, Las Vegas, valet parking. Little Rock, and Seattle-Tacoma. Valet parking was used on a 2. The fees established for valet parking should reflect the temporary basis during construction at the airports serving marginal costs for providing this service. If the cost for this Portland (OR) and New York (John F. Kennedy International premium service is too low, valet parking may attract cus- Airport). tomers who would otherwise have paid for close-in park- ing and who, at most airports, generate higher net revenues than do valet customers. B.2 Valet Parking--Curbside 3. Select attractive and convenient curbside areas for valet Drop-Off/Pickup customer drop-off/pickup that are visible to potential cus- with Airline Check-In tomers, but do not interfere with overall curbside roadway Purpose operations. 4. Obtain prior approval of procedures for storing unat- Improve customer service by allowing customers, particu- tended vehicles at the curbside (e.g., after a customer drops larly frequent flyers willing to pay higher parking fees, to drop off a vehicle and before the vehicle is shuttled to the stor- off and pick up their vehicles, check their baggage, and receive age area, or when a vehicle is brought to the curbside in their boarding passes at the terminal curbside.

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36 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Use by Customers Customers using this service stop at a designated curbside area where they can check their bags, receive boarding passes, leave their vehicles with a valet attendant and then proceed directly to the security screening checkpoint. Where available, this service may be offered only to first-class passengers or "gold level" frequent flyers. It is typically provided by an airline at a major connecting hub airport in conjunction with a park- ing or valet parking operator. The airline may subsidize the parking costs in order to offer the service at a reduced cost to its passengers. From a parking operations perspective, this service is nearly identical to traditional valet parking--a valet attendant accepts Source: Jacobs Consultancy. and returns the vehicle, which is stored safely and securely at a nearby or remote location. The primary difference compared Figure B.2b. Curbside check-in counter window. to traditional valet parking is that, in addition to the valet atten- dant, airline representatives are available to accept and check the customer's baggage and issue a boarding pass. others willing to pay higher fees for the convenience of valet parking. This service is offered by Lufthansa German Airlines at Marketing and promotional advantages realized by the Munich Airport. (See Figures B.2a and B.2b.) Airport and air- airline offering this service to its frequent flyers. line representatives did not respond to requests for information about this service. Implementation Actions Implementation actions differ from traditional valet park- Benefits ing because of the role of the airline and required access to the baggage handling system. Key implementation steps required The apparent benefits include those associated with tradi- by an airport operator include tional valet parking (see Benefits in Section B.1), as well as the following marketing advantages realized by the airline: 1. Negotiate the business arrangements with the cooperating airline(s) to define how the costs, revenues, and operating Improved airline customer service and satisfaction-- responsibilities are to be shared. particularly for business travelers, frequent flyers, or 2. Develop the curbside window or counter position where the airline representative will accept baggage and issue boarding passes. 3. Determine how checked baggage will be screened and transferred to the outbound baggage handling system. Marketing and promotion of the service are the responsi- bility of the airline(s). Other implementation actions, similar to those required to implement traditional valet parking, include selecting (a) the curbside area where customers would drop off and pick up their vehicles (which will need to be adjacent to the airline window or counter), (b) a secure site for long-term vehicle storage, and (c) a third-party contractor to operate the valet service and serve as a representative of the airline and the airport enterprise. Source: Jacobs Consultancy. Key Considerations Figure B.2a. Valet parking spaces opposite curbside As noted, the following considerations were not confirmed check-in window at Munich Airport. by the entities offering the service. However, the key consid-

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Category B: Value-Added Parking Products 37 eration is anticipated to be the terms of the business arrange- Examples of Application ment with the airline. It is suggested that arrangements should reflect (1) parking revenues that would be received by Valet parking at curbside with airline check-in is available the airport enterprise if the valet service were to be operated at Terminal 2 at Munich Airport (offered by Lufthansa Ger- directly by the airport operator, (2) amount of curbside to be man Airlines). Similar services are being implemented at allocated to the airline and how use of this space is to be UAE's Abu Dhabi International Airport (with Etihad Air- enforced, (3) responsibility for the movement and storage of ways), Qatar's New Doha International Airport (with Qatar customer vehicles, and (4) terminal area to be leased for this Airways), and Toronto's Pearson International Airport (with purpose, and any required modifications to existing space. Air Canada). The building space to be leased by the airline should allow for the secure movement of baggage from the curbside win- dow or counter position to the baggage handling or screening B.3 Valet Parking--Non-Curbside area. At Munich Airport, the valet curbside is adjacent to the Drop-Off/Pickup end of the ticket counter, allowing for baggage to be inserted Purpose into the baggage system behind the counters. Improve customer service by providing customers, willing to pay higher fees, with attendant parking (and retrieval) of Implementation Costs their vehicles, which they drop off (and pick up) at or near the The primary implementation costs are those for modifying parking facility entrance. or constructing the terminal building/ticketing area to allow for baggage handling. Other key costs are the same as for tra- Use by Customers ditional valet parking: (1) the opportunity costs (net revenues) resulting from valet operations (particularly if fees are sub- Customers using non-curbside drop-off/pickup valet park- sidized by an airline) versus those that would be realized from ing drop their vehicles off at a designated valet or vehicle drop- other parking products, (2) staff costs for selecting, managing, off area located near the entrance to a remote parking facility and overseeing the valet contractor, and (3) costs of coordina- or surface lot. After dropping off a vehicle, the customer is tion with the airline or contractor providing baggage check. greeted by a valet attendant who accepts and parks the vehicle in a secure location. The customer then board a shuttle bus waiting nearby; the shuttle driver may offer to take the cus- Ongoing O&M Costs tomer's baggage and place it on the shuttle bus. Customers are The primary ongoing O&M costs are for oversight of the then transported directly to the terminal. Although valet cus- contractor. tomers may share the bus with other customers, once they board the shuttle bus, they generally encounter no stops en route to the terminal. Implementation Schedule Upon returning to the airport, valet customers are picked The actual schedule for implementation is unknown, but up at the terminal curbside by a shuttle bus driver who again the elements requiring the most time are expected to be the may offer to provide baggage assistance, and transports the airline negotiations and terminal building modifications. As customers to a designated valet zone where their vehicles are with traditional valet parking, selection of a third-party oper- waiting. If the customer previously provided a credit card ator and award of contract is estimated to require 6 months number to the parking operator (i.e., the customer is a fre- or less. quent parker or reserved a space using a credit card), the credit card receipt will have been placed inside the vehicle, the Supporting and Complementary Strategies vehicle will have been cleaned of ice or snow (or serviced if so and Technologies in This Guidebook requested), and the customer can simply exit the lot. Vehicle Washing and Servicing (C.1), Concierge Services (C.2), Benefits Onsite Sale of Food, Beverages, and Other Products (C.3), Reported benefits include Loyalty Programs (C.5), Web-Based Reservations (F.3), and Improved customer service and satisfaction--particularly Yield Management (F.4). for the business traveler or others willing to pay higher

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38 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies fees for the convenience of valet parking and baggage to operate valet service because of the liability associated assistance. with moving customer vehicles. Attractive valet-type service that avoids the need to provide The valet operator can be the same contractor operat- dedicated curbside space at the terminal. ing the airport's public parking services or a contractor More efficient storage of parked vehicles because attendant- specializing in valet parking operations. Most often, the parked vehicles require less space than self-parked vehicles. contactor is retained using a management agreement (i.e., Attendant-parked vehicles occupy narrower stalls or tan- reimbursed for its costs plus paid a management fee), but dem spaces are used (since the parking operator knows some airport operators have retained a valet contractor which vehicles need to be retrieved first, and can park these using a concession agreement (i.e., the contractor pays the vehicles so that they can be readily accessed). airport enterprise a percentage of gross revenues plus a Opportunity to store vehicles in less popular or less con- guaranteed amount). venient portions of self-parking facilities. Attendants can 4. Market the service. The availability of the valet parking park and retrieve vehicles from areas that are rarely used by service needs to be well publicized. customers. Improved gross revenues as a result of the higher fees paid Key Considerations by valet customers (versus self-parkers). However, these When implementing a non-curbside valet service, consider higher revenues are typically accompanied by (a) higher operating and labor costs (e.g., full-time attendants are 1. Typically, valet parking operations generate lower net rev- required to park and retrieve vehicles), (b) increased lia- enues than equivalent self-parking operations because of bility insurance costs (because of the risk associated with the higher operating costs. However, the costs of this valet the movement of customer vehicles), and (c) marketing parking product are lower than those of curbside valet park- expenses. ing (see B.1) because vehicles are moved shorter distances and only within a parking facility (versus public roadways). Implementation Actions Therefore, the required number of valet attendants is lower, Implementation actions include as is the risk of damaging a customer's vehicle. 2. Whether an existing parking facility can be readily con- 1. Select the parking facility where the valet service is to be verted to valet service. provided. The parking facility should have an appropriate 3. Whether the valet parking service and self-parking should entry/exit configuration. be operated using a single operator or separate operators. Entry configuration--Ideally, the parking facility entry Use of a single management contractor avoids potential should provide physical separation between valet and self- concerns regarding allocation of costs and simplifies bus- parking customers. The valet entry area should provide a ing operations. covered area where customers can park and unload their 4. The valet parking fees should reflect the extra costs for vehicles adjacent to a shuttle bus stop. providing valet services and include a differential cost to Exit configuration--The exit should provide separate manage demand between the valet and self-parking por- lanes for valet and self-parking customers. The valet exit tions of the facility. If the cost for this premium service is should include three to five spaces, depending on the size too low, valet parking may attract customers who would of the operation, near a shuttle bus stop where vehicles can otherwise have paid for self-parking. be parked securely while waiting for arriving customers. 2. Modify shuttle bus operations. The shuttle bus route Implementation Costs should include stops at the lot entry and exit. Shuttle bus drivers should be allowed to leave the bus to provide cus- The primary implementation costs are (1) staff costs asso- tomers with baggage assistance (i.e., step out of the bus ciated with advertising for, selecting, and oversight of the while they transfer baggage between a customer's vehicle parking contractor and (2) any net parking revenues that the and the shuttle bus). Ideally, the shuttle bus driver should airport enterprise may forego because of the migration of be also able to accept tips from customers for this service. customers from self-parking to valet parking. Often airports prohibit parking lot shuttle bus drivers from accepting tips or leaving buses unattended. Ongoing O&M Costs 3. Select a third-party contractor to operate the valet service. Airport operators, even those that operate their public The primary ongoing O&M costs are for oversight of the parking facilities, generally retain a third-party contractor contractor.

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Category B: Value-Added Parking Products 39 Implementation Schedule Benefits Implementation (including the actions required to receive Reported benefits of trunk-to-trunk service include management approval, selection, and reconfiguration of a Improved customer service (compared to a shuttle bus ser- parking facility, and contractor selection/award) may require vice operating on fixed routes and headways). With trunk- 6 months or less, depending on the time required to select a to-trunk service customers experience reduced search times contractor and award a new contract. for empty spaces, waiting times for shuttle buses, and walk- ing distances to/from the bus, and are offered baggage assis- Supporting and Complementary Strategies tance at both ends of the trip. and Technologies in This Guidebook Improved use of available parking spaces because cus- tomers are directed where to park. Vehicle Washing and Servicing (C.1), Avoidance of the need for bus shelters within the lot, and Concierge Services (C.2), the maintenance and lighting of such shelters. Onsite Sale of Food, Beverages, and Other Products (C.3), Improved customer safety because customers need not wait Loyalty Programs (C.5), Web-Based Reservations (F.3), and alone at bus shelters during late night hours in a large lot. Reduced pavement maintenance and costs resulting from Yield Management (F.4). the use of small shuttle vans (compared to large shuttle Examples of Application buses). Higher gross revenues compared to traditional economy Non-curbside valet drop-off/pickup is frequently offered parking because of the ability to charge higher rates. For by privately operated off-airport parking providers. example, at airports that offer trunk-to-trunk service, this product costs between $3 to $6 per day more than the tradi- tional economy parking product. (However, at Baltimore/ B.4 Valet Parking--Customer Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, Transported to/from customers using coupons pay an additional $1 per day Airport in Shuttle Van rather than $6 per day.) (Trunk-to-Trunk Service) In 2004, trunk-to-trunk service was offered at the Pikes Peak Purpose Lot at Denver International Airport, but this service was elim- inated because the increased costs of operations--primarily Improve customer service and promote the use of economy/ the higher busing costs--led to lower net revenues. The opera- long-duration parking facilities, thus attracting additional tors of other airports (e.g., Baltimore/Washington International customers and revenue. Thurgood Marshall and Dallas/Fort Worth International Air- ports) continue to provide this service because of the enhanced Use by Customers customer service, improved market share, and larger selection of parking products offered. Customers entering the parking facility are directed by signs or traffic attendants to park in a designated portion of the facil- ity, where they are met by a shuttle bus driver who transfers Implementation Actions their bags from the car to the shuttle vehicle, and transports the Implementation actions identified by airport operators customers to the terminal. Upon their return, customers are include driven directly to their vehicles, where the shuttle bus driver transfers their bags from the shuttle to the car. 1. Select the parking facility where the service is to be offered. Ideally, it should be configured to allow shuttle vehicles to Customers may share the shuttle vehicle with other park- circulate easily and efficiently (i.e., minimize route length). ing customers (or, in some instances, rental car customers or 2. Establish desired maximum customer wait times for both hotel/motel guests). This product is referred to as "trunk-to- pick up and drop off. trunk" service or "carside-to-curbside" service, or, when offered 3. Select the bus path(s) for drop off and pick up (they may by privately owned, off-airport lots, as "valet" service. differ), choose preferred vehicle size, and choose the num- Managed fills, whereby traffic attendants direct customers ber of vehicles required to provide desired headways. to empty spaces but buses follow fixed routes, are a variation Buses follow the shortest path between customer drop-off of this product. spaces, and need not follow fixed routes.

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40 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies 4. Determine method to direct entering motorists to empty lot from traditional economy parking to trunk-to-trunk ser- spaces: traffic attendants in communication with bus vice would be about $6 million for pavement reconstruction drivers, dynamic message signs, barriers, or other. and $1 million per year in additional operating costs. 5. Confirm ability of shuttle bus drivers to provide baggage assistance and accept tips from customers. Tips are a sig- Ongoing O&M Costs nificant portion of valet driver income and will encourage drivers to provide the desired level of customer service. The ongoing O&M costs are those associated with operat- Provide additional customer service training for drivers. ing the buses and having traffic attendants/lot supervisors. Provide method to remind customers where they parked their cars (e.g., pre-stamped cards). Implementation Schedule Key Considerations Implementation (including the actions required to receive management approval, marketing, planning, construction, When implementing trunk-to-trunk service, include and startup) may require 6 months or less, depending on the 1. Considering lot configuration and pavement strength. time required to plan the operation, acquire new vehicles (if The ideal lot provides simple circulation paths for motorists needed), train drivers, and publicize the product. and buses, and has full-strength pavement along all aisles rather than just the aisles intended for use by buses traveling Supporting and Complementary Strategies along fixed routes. and Technologies in This Guidebook 2. Selecting appropriate rates. Although this is a considera- tion when introducing any parking product, it is particu- This product is complementary with many other strategies larly important when the product is competing with other and most technologies, including existing products and when the new product includes Economy/Long-Duration Parking (A.3), unusual operating costs (such as shuttle bus operations). Loyalty Programs (C.5), 3. Adopting a policy to permit shuttle drivers to provide Managed Fills (D.7), and baggage assistance and accept tips, which is a key to good Coupons (F.5). service. 4. Using a management contractor. At airports where trunk- Examples of Application to-trunk service is provided, the service is operated under the terms of a management contract (rather than a conces- Airports with trunk-to-trunk service include those serving sion agreement), even at airports where airport staff oper- Baltimore, Dallas/Fort Worth, and Fort Myers, as well as ate the remaining portions of the airport parking facilities. many privately operated parking lots. 5. Maintaining the ability to easily direct motorists to empty portions of the lot, and procedures to be used when the lot approaches capacity. B.5 Business Parking Purpose Implementation Costs Improve customer service and revenues by attracting cus- The primary capital costs are for (1) reconstruction of exist- tomers, who would have otherwise parked in lower-priced ing pavement or construction of stronger pavement in a new lots or off-airport facilities, to a higher-priced surface lot. lot to allow heavy vehicles to circulate along all aisles, (2) acqui- Improve customer perception of the airport. Facilitate use of sition of shuttle vans (assuming that existing vehicles need to small parking lots (e.g., with less than 300 spaces) that might be replaced), and (3) dynamic signage directing motorists to not support traditional parking configurations. empty spaces, or other wayfinding measures. The primary operating costs (as opposed to those occurring in a traditional economy lot) are those for operating additional shuttle bus Use by Customers hours (buses will drive longer distances and operate at increased Customers using business parking facilities are offered frequencies), and for traffic attendants/lot supervisors (to more frequent shuttle bus service than with other parking coordinate bus drivers). products, as well as additional amenities intended to serve A comparison prepared for Sacramento International Air- the needs of business travelers. Examples of these include port indicated that the cost to convert an 8,000-space surface bottled water, coffee, tea, or other beverage; a free daily

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Category B: Value-Added Parking Products 41 paper such as USA Today; Internet access; and use of meeting Key Considerations rooms. When implementing this strategy, include Business parking is generally provided in small surface lots that require customers to use a shuttle bus or walk long dis- 1. A good first impression. A business parking lot should tances, but in locations that are closer to the terminal than other provide a high level of service from the outset and con- economy parking products. Parking rates for business parking tinue to maintain a high level of service. For example, cus- are typically higher than for economy parking products because tomers must encounter (a) reliable bus service that meets of the more frequent bus service and other amenities offered. or exceeds the published waiting times, (b) no entry or exit delays, and (c) friendly and courteous bus drivers. Reliable The use of small surface parking lots is feasible because parking access and revenue controls are particularly impor- business parking is generally operated without cashiers, rely- tant, as no cashiers are available nearby to respond to prob- ing entirely upon credit card in/credit card out systems or lems or delays. other cash-free technology. This approach is practical, as the 2. Branding and marketing. Initial and ongoing marketing intended customers are frequent travelers familiar with the efforts are required to attract the desired customers. use of the business parking facility. Although a clearly identifiable brand is important, it is necessary to reach out to potential customers and empha- Benefits size the benefits of the available service and amenities. 3. Site. Potential customers should be able to easily find the Potential benefits include site. Customers should consider the site to be near the ter- Improving gross revenues resulting from higher rates and minal and to offer short travel times to/from the terminal. potentially increasing market share. Attracting specific market segments (e.g., resident busi- Implementation Costs ness travelers) through improved customer services and The primary costs are for (1) any required modifications to amenities. Allowing productive and beneficial use of surface lots that the surface lot, including the new revenue control system, an airport operator might otherwise not consider finan- (2) acquiring the appropriate buses, and (3) ongoing market- cially viable. An example could be a small parking lot where ing and promotion, if required. Appendix A provides the the costs of providing cashiers on a round-the-clock basis costs of credit card in/credit card out entry and exit controls. are not justified by the expected revenues and where it is not Marketing and promotion are expected to require a full-time feasible to develop a single exit plaza serving this lot and a person during the initial months of operation. larger, nearby lot. Ongoing O&M Costs Implementation Actions O&M costs are equivalent to those for any other compara- Implementation actions include ble traditional parking facilities. 1. Select and develop a potential site. Ideally, the site should be a small lot offering easy access from the airport entrance Implementation Schedule and easy access to/from the terminal via shuttle bus or walking. Implementation (including the actions required to obtain 2. Install appropriate cashierless access control technologies management approval, marketing, planning, construction, providing adequate capacity to accommodate expected and startup) may require less than 2 months to 6 months, peak demands. depending on the time required to acquire and install the 3. Develop an operational plan including shuttle bus routes access control equipment and new signage, and to implement and frequencies, and a source and distribution plan for the marketing program. proposed amenities. Assure that adequate buses are avail- able to maintain high-frequency service. Supporting and Complementary Strategies 4. Develop a marketing plan and brand for the new product. and Technologies in This Guidebook The marketing plan should emphasize the convenience, improved service, and amenities offered. The selected brand Loyalty Programs (C.5), could be displayed on airport promotional material, web- Credit Card In/Out (E.2), page, wayfinding signage, and shuttle bus exteriors. Proximity Cards (E.5),

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42 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Branding (F.7), and Increased or maintained market share. Cardholders or Marketing (F.8). employees provided corporate cards are unlikely to use competing off-airport parking products. For this reason, Examples of Application some parking operators (primarily private operators) offer Airports that offer, or once offered, business parking include customers volume-based discounts. Reduced cashier requirements and thus operating costs. Indianapolis International Airport (closed with the opening of No data quantifying the additional revenues resulting from the new Midfield Terminal in 2008) and Albuquerque Inter- national Sunport (now under design). this program were available; however, airport operators consider it to be successful based on the number of repeat customers who pay standard rates and minimal ongoing O&M costs. B.6 Monthly Billing--Pay per Use Easily combined with other complementary products, Purpose including pay per use, unlimited use, and loyalty programs. Improve customer service. Attract additional customers and revenues by offering frequent travelers, and those travel- Implementation Actions ing for business purposes, an additional level of convenience. Implementation actions include 1. Assess whether a market exists for this specific product by Use by Customers conducting focus groups or surveys with potential cus- With this product (sometimes referred to as corporate tomers and local businesses. parking), customers are sold access cards or corporate cards 2. Select access technology that is compatible with the air- (e.g., a proximity card, magnetic-stripe card, or AVI trans- port's existing or planned parking revenue control system. ponder) that allow them to enter and exit a parking facility Generally, cards that can be waved in front of a reader and enable airport staff to track their use of the parking facil- upon entering and exiting the reserved zone, such as prox- ity. Rather than paying upon each exit, cardholders are imity cards or AVI tags, are generally used at airports. A e-mailed monthly statements detailing their parking activity credit card in/out technology could also be used. and the fees charged to their credit cards (which are automat- 3. Adapt, obtain, or develop software that tracks customer ically debited after each exit) or are e-mailed the remaining parking activity, automatically prepares monthly state- balance in the account (if the airport requires cardholders to ments, and monitors the remaining balance in each account, maintain a deposit equivalent to one month of parking activ- if necessary. ity or other amount). Cardholders may park in any available 4. Market and promote the new product using the airport space, but unlike some other value-added parking products, website and flyers distributed to exiting customers, partic- they are not guaranteed an empty space. ularly those exiting garage or daily parking facilities. Because the corporate card can be shared among several patrons, they are often purchased by a company that then Key Considerations makes the cards available to all of its employees who are trav- eling on corporate business. Those identified by airport operators include 1. Separate entry and exit lanes are desirable so that card- Benefits holders can avoid exit delays. The presence of these dedi- The reported benefits include cated lanes also helps make other customers aware of the availability of these cards. Improved customer service because of simpler billing 2. The cost of access cards varies from $50 to $200 at various practices and improved reporting offered to participating airports. customers. Enhanced service to a market segment composed primar- Implementation Costs ily of frequent parkers and others traveling on business purposes. These customers need to track their business The primary costs are (1) any required modifications to the expenses, and either they or their employers are generally parking access control system to allow it to accommodate willing to pay a small monthly fee for the convenience of access cards, and (2) the marketing program. One airport receiving monthly billing statements. operator reported that advertisements placed as part of the

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Category B: Value-Added Parking Products 43 marketing program cost $85,000. These costs exclude staff time or focus groups. Ongoing O&M Costs O&M costs, which are primarily associated with reviewing the monthly billings, are reported to be minimal. Ongoing marketing was generally limited to the airport's website and word of mouth. Implementation Schedule Implementation (including actions required to obtain management approval, marketing, planning, and start up) may require 3 to 6 months. Source: Massachusetts Port Authority. Figure B.7. Parking access card. Supporting and Complementary Strategies and Technologies in This Guidebook At airports where this product is offered, it is referred to as Guaranteed Space--Unlimited Use (B.8) and a "Gold Card," "Passport," or "Sure Park." (See Figure B.7.) Automatic Vehicle Identification/Radio-Frequency Iden- tification (E.3). Benefits Examples of Application Improved service for participating customers and increased parking revenues are the noted benefits. Specific benefits iden- Airports where corporate cards or monthly billings are tified by airport parking operators include used include San Francisco, CA (ParkFast) and Seattle- Tacoma, WA (Premier Corporate Parking) international Enhanced service to customers consisting primarily of fre- airports. quent parkers traveling on business purposes. These cus- tomers are (a) typically "just-in-time" travelers who value time savings (compared to cost savings), and (b) willing to pay higher fees for a product that guarantees easy access to B.7 Reserved Parking Zone-- empty spaces and avoids the time spent searching for empty Pay Per Use spaces. Purpose Parking operators reported that access cardholders pre- viously "hated" using airport parking facilities, particu- Enhance customer service, particularly for business travel- larly during busy periods when spaces were hard to find, ers. Increase parking revenues with relatively little investment. but now over 95% of cardholders renew. Helped increase or maintain market share. Employees pro- Use by Customers vided access cards are unlikely to use competing off-airport parking products. For this reason, some off-airport park- Customers who purchase an access card are guaranteed a ing operators (primarily private operators) offer customers parking space in a conveniently located area or zone reserved volume-based discounts. for cardholders. Customers pay a flat annual fee (to cover Increased parking revenue. Data quantifying the additional administrative costs) plus the standard duration-based parking revenues resulting from this program were not available; fee for each use of the airport parking facility. Parking fees are however, airport operators considered this product to billed against the customer's credit card, which is on file with be successful based on the number of repeat customers the parking operator. Customers receive a monthly summary (including new customers) and the minimal ongoing O&M of the amounts billed to their accounts for the use of airport costs. parking facilities. Because the access card can be shared among May be implemented to offer customers a range of com- several users, the cards may be purchased by a company, which plementary products, including monthly billing, pay per then makes the card available to all of its employees. use, unlimited use, and valet services.

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44 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Implementation Actions that the total implementation costs were $65,000. These costs exclude staff time, focus groups, and acquisition of new access Implementation actions identified by airport operators control equipment, if required. include 1. Assess whether a market exists for this product by con- Ongoing O&M Costs ducting focus groups with potential customers, and deter- mining if conveniently located spaces are available during O&M costs were reported to be minimal. Ongoing market- peak times. ing was generally limited to the airport's website and word of 2. Identify potential locations for a reserved parking zone. mouth. The number of spaces should be flexible to respond to market changes. To establish the number of spaces to be Implementation Schedule reserved, it was assumed at certain airports that about 25% of cardholders would park at any one time. Implementation (including the actions required to obtain 3. Select access technology that is compatible with the park- management approval, marketing, planning, and start-up) ing revenue control system. Some airports use proximity may require 6 months or more. cards or AVI cards that can be waved in front of a reader upon entering and exiting the reserved zone. Supporting and Complementary Strategies 4. Market the program. Contact potential customers. Air- and Technologies in This Guidebook port operators have used e-mails to American Express and Diners Club members, airline frequent flyers, advertise- Valet Parking (B.1 and B.4), ments in newspapers, and coupons provided to exiting Monthly Billing--Pay per Use (B.6), customers. The best sources of potential customers are Guaranteed Space--Unlimited Use (B.8), and Automatic Vehicle Identification/Radio-Frequency Iden- cardholders of a monthly billing program, if such a pro- gram exists. tification (E.3). Key Considerations Examples of Application Key considerations identified by airport operators include Airports where reserved parking zones with pay per use the following: have been implemented include those serving Atlanta, Boston, Houston, Sacramento, and San Francisco, as well as many 1. The selected zone should provide customers with a bene- privately operated off-airport parking facilities. fit not available in adjacent or nearby locations. This prod- uct has been unsuccessful when parking is readily available in adjacent locations or parking structure levels. In other B.8 Guaranteed Space-- words, this product works best when there is a regular Unlimited Use shortage of available parking spaces. 2. A separate entry is required and a dedicated exit lane Purpose should be provided so cardholders can avoid exit delays. Improve customer level of service, particularly for frequent 3. The cost of access cards varies from $50 to $200 at various travelers and those traveling for business purposes. Increase airports. parking revenues while requiring relatively little capital invest- 4. Sufficient conveniently located parking spaces must be ment by offering a higher priced product and by maintaining available to provide guaranteed spaces. market share. 5. First consider monthly billing programs that do not pro- vide a guaranteed space (B.6), and then initiate a guaran- teed space program to this customer base. Use by Customers Customers who purchase access cards (sometimes called Implementation Costs Gold Cards) are guaranteed to find an empty parking space in The primary costs are (1) any required modifications to the a designated portion or zone of a parking facility (typically a parking access control system to allow it to accommodate the garage). Access is card-activated via a proximity card, magnetic- access cards, and (2) the marketing program. One airport stripe card, or AVI transponder. Thus, only cardholders can operator reported that the advertisements placed as part of the access this designated zone. Cardholders are charged a flat marketing program cost $85,000. Another airport reported monthly fee rather than a fee based on actual use of the park-

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Category B: Value-Added Parking Products 45 ing facility. The fee is electronically billed to the cardholder's can be waved (or tapped) in front of a reader upon enter- credit card and the cardholder is e-mailed a receipt. ing and exiting the reserved zone, such as proximity cards or AVI cards, are used. Potential cardholders are typically (1) "just-in-time" travel- 4. Market the program. Contact potential customers. The ers who value time savings more than cost savings and (2) will- best source of potential customers is current cardholders ing to pay higher fees for a product that guarantees easy access of other value-added programs, if these programs already to empty spaces and minimizes time spent searching for an exist at the airport. Some airport operators have used empty space. e-mails to American Express and Diners Club members, airline frequent flyers, advertisements in newspapers, and Benefits coupons to exiting customers. The operator of one airport Reported benefits include is attempting to develop a link between the hubbing air- lines' reservation pages and this parking product. Enhanced service to a market composed primarily of fre- quent parkers traveling on business purposes. Customers Key Considerations prefer the easy billing/payment available with this product. Customer preference for this product is evidenced by Those identified by airport operators include reports that cardholders previously "hated" using airport 1. The selected zone should provide customers with a bene- parking facilities, particularly during busy periods when fit not available in adjacent or nearby locations. For exam- spaces were hard to find, but over 95% of cardholders renew. ple, this product has been unsuccessful when parking is Improved gross and net parking revenues. At one airport, readily available in adjacent locations or levels. this product generates greater revenue per space than 2. Focus groups should be used to determine features cus- another product because the price of this product is equiv- tomers are seeking and cost points (i.e., the additional alent to 15 to 20 days of general parking, but most customers amount customers are willing to pay for improved service parked for fewer than 15 days each month. Ongoing O&M and a guaranteed space). costs were reported to be minimal. 3. Separate entry and exit lanes should be provided so that Improved customer perception of airport parking prod- cardholders can avoid entry and exit delays. The presence ucts by marketing availability of a range of products, and of dedicated lanes helps with marketing this product. the branding of this product. 4. Periodically survey existing customers to determine which Increased or maintained market share. Customers who pur- products they formerly used and the products they would chase Gold Cards are unlikely to use competing off-airport use if guaranteed spaces were not available to support parking products. This allows the airport to target major analyses of resulting net revenues. employers. 5. Periodically require that participating companies/card- Could be packaged with other services, including monthly holders verify that all of their cards are still in the possession billing, pay per use, unlimited use, and valet services. of their employees. Some airport operators were concerned that former employees of participating companies might Implementation Actions continue to gain access to the reserved area. Implementation actions identified by airport operators include Implementation Costs 1. Assess whether a significant market for this product exists Implementation costs were reported to be minimal. The by conducting focus groups with potential customers, and primary costs were for marketing and promotion and moni- determine if adequate numbers of conveniently located toring and billing cardholders. spaces are available during busy periods. Determine which product(s) customers would use if the guaranteed spaces Ongoing O&M Costs were not available. 2. Identify potential locations for a reserved parking zone. The There are no ongoing O&M costs, other than maintaining number of spaces should be flexible to respond to market the billing program and software. changes. To establish the number of spaces to be reserved, some airport operators have assumed that on an average Implementation Schedule day, about 25% of cardholders would park at the airport. 3. Select access technology that is compatible with the park- Implementation (including the actions required to obtain ing revenue control system. At most airports, cards that management approval, vendor selection, marketing, planning,

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46 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies construction and startup) was reported to require about 2. Install exit ticket readers that can recognize and accept val- 6 months, including 2 months for internal meetings. idated tickets. 3. Track validated tickets to determine the number and value of the tickets each concessionaire validates. Supporting and Complementary Strategies 4. Establish procedures limiting the number of tickets con- and Technologies in This Guidebook cessionaires are allowed to validate each month or charge Reserved Parking Zone--Pay per Use (B.7), for a validated ticket, tickets exceeding a certain monetary Loyalty Programs (C.5), and value, or tickets in excess of the allowed number. Branding (F.7). Key Considerations Examples of Application Key considerations include Airports providing guaranteed spaces with unlimited use 1. Ticket validation procedures should be established and include those serving Boston (Logan International Airport) compliance with these procedures assured. If not properly and Paris (Charles de Gaulle). managed, validated tickets can provide an opportunity to circumvent a parking system and can lead to a loss of park- ing revenues. B.9 Validated Parking--Retail 2. Ongoing monitoring of concessionaire use of ticket valida- tion equipment will help assure compliance with assigned Purpose procedures and avoid improper validations. Encourage customer patronage of airport concessions and terminal area tenants. Implementation Costs Primary costs are for the acquisition and deployment of Use by Customers parking access and revenue control equipment that allows Customers shopping in terminal stores and restaurants are ticket validation and accepts validated tickets. offered coupons or cards providing discounted or free park- ing in airport-operated public parking facilities. Ongoing O&M Costs There are no ongoing O&M costs, other than for mainte- Benefits nance of the ticket validators used by concessionaires. The reported benefits include Improved wayfinding to concessionaires located in pre- Implementation Schedule security areas that attract customers who are not airline The schedule for new parking revenue control equipment passengers. acquisition and deployment governs the overall schedule. Improved opportunities for some tenants to compete with off-airport locations offering free parking, such as restau- Supporting and Complementary Strategies rants or hotels/motels having convention space or meeting and Technologies in This Guidebook rooms. Improved retail sales, if combined with an airportwide Onsite Sale of Food, Beverages, and Other Products (C.3) offering, such as head-of-the-line privileges at security and screening or access to an airport-operated club room. Loyalty Programs (C.5). Implementation Actions Examples of Application Implementation actions include Since September 2001, few U.S. airports seek to attract 1. Issue concessionaires and tenants ticket validation equip- non-airline passengers to in-terminal concessions. However, ment and establish strict controls for the use of this many non-airport locations, including parking facilities equipment. serving central business districts and retail centers, offer

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Category B: Value-Added Parking Products 47 reduced-rate parking if tickets are validated by participating Enhanced airport revenues, because on-airport hotel oper- merchants. ators typically pay concession fees (or management fees) to the airport operator; increased patronage. InterParking, the parking operator at Brussels Airport, Increased revenue to the hotel operator, which can engage offers "P-Card Shopping," which can be used for the payment in yield management by filling rooms, which might have of parking at the airport and retail establishments through- out Belgium, and also for discounts or parking rebates at par- otherwise remained empty, with reduced-rate guests. ticipating merchants. Payments are automatically deducted from the cardholder's credit card, and can be tracked using a Implementation Actions website maintained by InterParking (www.pcard.be). Implementation actions identified by airport operators One private operator (Park'n'Fly) offers customers dis- include counts on the purchase of a 1-year security pass membership 1. Negotiate and enter into a business arrangement with the in Clear, a program allowing airline passengers who pay a fee on-airport hotel operator governing the park-sleep-fly to bypass queues. program, including the validation program and parking fees. 2. Provide the hotel staff ticket validation equipment and B.10 Validated Parking-- strict controls for the use of this equipment. Alternatively, Park-Sleep-Fly use prepaid exit cards (i.e., magnetic-stripe cards). 3. Install exit ticket readers that can recognize and accept val- Purpose idated tickets or cards. Improve customer service, enhance revenues (both for the 4. If prepaid cards are to be used, prepare the card design and airport and the onsite hotel operator), and attract guests who art work and arrange for their fabrication. would have otherwise used park-sleep-fly programs offered 5. Track validated tickets or cards to determine the number by hotels located off airport property. and value of the validated tickets. 6. Work with local tour operators and promoters to provide travel packages that include the park-sleep-fly program. Use by Customers Guests staying at least one night at an on-airport hotel are Key Considerations offered free or reduced-rate parking for multiple days. This offer is in addition to the validated parking typically offered Key considerations include the business arrangements guests for each night they stay at the hotel. Typically, hotel staff with the hotel operator for tracking the use of the discount at the front desk or a concierge will validate a guest's parking card and promotional activities. ticket. Implementation Costs Benefits The primary costs are for marketing prior to implemen- Reported benefits include tation of the program and ongoing promotions and adver- Improved customer service, particularly for those locally tisements. Prepaid access cards cost about $0.90 each to originating airline passengers with morning flights (or fabricate. international flights, for which passengers must check in 2 hours before their departure time) and who have to drive Ongoing O&M Costs long distances to the airport. These customers benefit by being able to arrive during the evening before their flights The only significant ongoing O&M costs are for marketing and park their cars for the duration of their trips for free or and promotion. at a reduced rate. Typically, this product is attractive to non-business passengers (or passenger groups) residing an Implementation Schedule hour or more away from the airport. Increased on-airport hotel patronage because the program Implementation of the park-sleep-fly program at Dallas/ enhances the hotel's ability to compete with hotels located Fort Worth (DFW) was reported to take about 3 months, off airport property. including design and fabrication of the prepaid cards.

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48 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Supporting and Complementary Strategies At Frankfurt Airport, the XXL zone is marketed for cus- and Technologies in This Guidebook tomers with large vehicles, over-height vehicles, and vehicles pulling trailers. Parking these types of vehicles is feasible None were identified. because of the configuration of the parking structure and cir- culation ramps. Examples of Application Airports with park-sleep-fly programs include those serv- Benefits ing DFW, Orlando, and Toronto. DFW offers a park-sleep- Apparent benefits include fly discount program that enables participating hotel guests Improved service for customers willing to pay higher rates to park on the airport for up to 7 days at a discounted rate. to minimize damage to their vehicles. Hotel guests purchase a prepaid card, provided to the hotel Increased revenue even though the zone may contain fewer by the airport operator, and use the card upon exiting the air- spaces because of the use of angled versus 90 spaces. port parking facility. The airport, which sold over 1,500 park- Increased parking options for customers. sleep-fly packages in one recent year, receives $10 per day from the hotel operator for each customer using the prepaid Implementation Actions park-sleep-fly card. Implementation actions include 1. Determine if sufficient customer demand for this product B.11 XXL (Extra Large) Parking exists through the use of focus groups and/or observa- tions of the number of luxury vehicles parked in airport Purpose facilities. Enhance customer service by offering, for an additional 2. Select a conveniently located zone that can be reconfig- fee, larger parking spaces that reduce the chance of a cus- ured to yield wider spaces. 3. Install card-activated gate arms at the entry and exit of this tomer's vehicle being scratched or damaged by other vehicles zone. Alternatively, this zone could be activated using a or customers. These larger spaces can also be designated for reserved parking Gold Card or similar access card. use by customers with large vehicles, over-height vehicles, or 4. Market and promote the service. At Munich Airport, the vehicles pulling trailers. product is advertised as being "extra large and extra close." Use by Customers Key Considerations After entering a parking facility, customers go into a sepa- Key considerations include rate nested area containing longer and wider spaces. Cus- 1. The zone should be easily accessible to both motorists and tomers seeking to enter this gate-controlled area must insert pedestrians. their tickets into readers located at the entry and exit points. 2. The parking access system should allow for nested parking Ideally, this premium parking product is near the terminal products and rates. That is, the access and egress controls building in a location that minimizes unprotected walking to the XXL zone should be configured to charge higher distances and level changes. fees for the use of these spaces. For example, at the P-20 Garage at Munich Airport, the general parking area is configured using spaces arranged at Implementation Costs right angles to the parking aisle (i.e., 90 spaces) but the XXL The primary costs are for (1) any required modifications to zone is configured using spaces arranged at 70 angles to the the pavement marking/striping, (2) any changes or modifica- aisle (i.e., 70 spaces). This layout results in wider spaces tions to the parking access control system, and (3) marketing (about 10-ft wide versus the standard 8.5-ft width) and and promotion. slightly longer spaces (about 19.5 to 20 ft long versus the stan- dard 18-ft length). At Munich, where the primary market for Ongoing O&M Costs this product appears to be customers with luxury vehicles, the cost of parking in the XXL zone is 50% higher than in the There are no ongoing O&M costs other than the additional adjacent general parking area. costs for maintaining additional revenue-control equipment.

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Category B: Value-Added Parking Products 49 Use by Customers This product consists of conveniently located parking spaces that are reserved for use by women. German law requires the allocation of parking spaces for women in pub- lic parking facilities at no additional cost. Similar spaces are provided in other parking facilities in Europe. In Miami, park- ing facilities are provided for parents traveling with young children. At European airports, ladies' spaces are nested areas within a larger facility that may be more brightly lit, located near the terminal building, have gate controlled access, or be monitored by video cameras. At Miami International Air- port, spaces for families traveling with small children are con- veniently located with signs indicating that they are reserved for authorized users, much like spaces reserved for disabled motorists. Benefits Source: Jacobs Consultancy. Potential benefits may include Figure B.11. Munich Airport. Improved customer service, particularly for customers having negative perceptions of the safety and security of large parking structures. Implementation Schedule Enhanced customer perception of the airport and its park- The schedule is dependent upon the time required for new ing system. pavement marking and modifications to the revenue control Increased parking options for customers. system. The actions required to obtain management approval and construction are estimated to require 2 to 4 months, Implementation Actions assuming major upgrades to the parking access system are not Implementation actions include required. 1. Determine the market for this product and determine if a Supporting and Complementary Strategies suitable parking area of adequate size is available and can and Technologies in This Guidebook be reserved for women or families traveling with small children. Reserved Parking Zone--Pay per Use (B.7), 2. Determine how to enforce and control the use of these Guaranteed Space--Unlimited Use (B.8), and reserved spaces. Loyalty Programs (C.5). 3. Provide increased illumination in the designated parking areas and pedestrian corridors. Consider painting ceilings Examples of Application white to reflect illumination. Airports with XXL parking zones include those serving Munich and Frankfurt. See Figure B.11. Key Considerations Those identified by airport operators include B.12 Parking for Ladies 1. Choosing the type of access controls. At Munich Airport and Families and other public locations in Germany, signs are provided at designated spaces indicating that the spaces are reserved Purpose for women. It is not known how these signed restrictions Improve comfort and safety for female customers using are enforced. airport parking facilities, particularly those using a parking At Frankfurt Airport, access to ladies' parking is con- structure. Improve customer perception of the airport. trolled by gate access and monitored by video cameras

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50 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies and microphones located near the entrance. To gain access, potential customers must push a button, which alerts a customer service agent, who uses the video system or speaks with the customer before raising the gate arm. 2. Implementation of enforcement measures that assure restricted access to the facility and improve both the per- ceived and actual safety in the facility. 3. The availability of such spaces needs to be promoted and marketed. 4. Customers may be willing to pay a small premium park- ing rate for this product; however, a potential negative impact is the perceived need to pay for safety, which would imply that existing facilities are unsafe. 5. Federal, state, or local laws may prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender. Source: Jacobs Consultancy. Figure B.12a. Frankfurt Airport. Implementation Costs The primary costs are those associated with new signs and access controls. Ongoing O&M Costs The most significant O&M costs are those associated with increased security measures and utilities for the ladies' park- ing area. Implementation Schedule It is expected that the actions required to obtain manage- ment approval for ladies' parking may require substantial time as no known examples of this product exist in North America. Construction and installation schedules are expected to require less than 3 months. Supporting and Complementary Strategies and Technologies in This Guidebook None were identified. Examples of Application Airports with ladies' parking include those serving Munich and Frankfurt. This product is widely available in public and privately operated parking facilities in Germany. See Fig- Source: Jacobs Consultancy. ure B.12a. Figure B.12b. Miami International Airport. Miami-Dade County offers a special parking permit for parents or legal guardians traveling with a stroller that can be used until a child is 3 years old. Miami International Airport

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Category B: Value-Added Parking Products 51 has reserved spaces for this use conveniently located near the Implementation Actions terminal. See Figure B.12b. Implementation actions identified by airport operators include B.13 Secure Parking and Secure 1. Identify a portion of the parking facility, particularly a Parking with Valet Service parking structure that can be reserved and allocated for this use. Purpose 2. Advertise and award a concession for operation of this product. Either the airport operator or the concessionaire Enhance customer service by offering customers a product could be responsible for the installation of fencing and that, for an additional fee, provides an additional level of gate controls. security for their vehicles and vehicle contents. Key Considerations Use by Customers Key considerations include Customers seeking a high level of security for their vehicles 1. The extent of demand for this product must be deter- and their contents may park in an area surrounded by floor- mined. to-ceiling fencing, monitored by guards around the clock, 2. The provision of secure parking may suggest to some that and where access by pedestrians and other vehicles is prohib- there are concerns with the level of safety and security ited or limited to those passing through rolling gates that are offered in general parking areas. normally closed. 3. The ability to provide a secure nested area that precludes Customers stop their vehicles at an office or in a lobby pedestrian circulation needs to be investigated. adjacent to the entry to the secure parking area, complete the necessary paperwork at a counter, and then either park their Implementation Costs vehicles or leave them with a valet attendant. Upon returning The primary costs are associated with the construction of to the garage, customers enter the lobby, pay at the counter the lobby and fencing, and the award of a concession to oper- for their stay, and then either retrieve their vehicles or wait for ate the secure parking area. vehicle delivery by an attendant. At some airports, the lobby where customers pay for their parking is located away from the garage along a primary pedestrian path and a valet atten- Ongoing O&M Costs dant retrieves the customer's vehicle. There are no ongoing O&M costs. Secure parking may be nested within general parking areas or accessed via separate entries and exits. This product is Implementation Schedule available at many large European airports and is often oper- ated by a separate concessionaire. At these locations, secure Unknown, but estimated to require 4 to 6 months, includ- parking costs 67% to 100% more than the adjacent general ing the actions required to obtain management approval. parking areas. Supporting and Complementary Strategies Benefits and Technologies in This Guidebook The reported benefits include the following: Valet Parking--Non-Curbside Drop-Off/Pickup (B.3), Reserved Parking Zone--Pay per Use (B.7), Provides improved customer service, particularly for those Guaranteed Space--Unlimited Use (B.8), and customers with luxury vehicles or those who wish to leave Vehicle Washing and Servicing (C.1). valuables in their cars while parked. Provides additional options for customers. Examples of Application Provides additional revenue opportunities depending on the terms of the concession agreement. European airport Airports with secure parking include those serving Brus- staff reported high demand for this product both by cus- sels, Frankfurt, Munich, and Paris. See Figures B.13a and tomers seeking extra security and by celebrities. B.13b.

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52 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Source: Jacobs Consultancy. Figure B.13a. Munich Airport. Source: Jacobs Consultancy. Figure B.13b. Brussels International Airport.