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CHAPTER 2 Documenting the Goals of Airport Management This chapter provides an overview of how to document the relevant goals of airport management and the metrics that can be used to evaluate the performance of potential parking strategies. Evaluation of a Parking Strategy Begins with Management Goals When identifying and evaluating potential parking strategies, it is beneficial to confirm and define the relevant goals of airport management prior to implementation. The goals for each airport are unique and reflect management's vision for the airport, its mission statement, and its specific values. To achieve these goals, management may have a strategy or long-term plan of action consisting of new parking products, services, or supporting technologies (see Figure 2.1). The following three parking-related goals are frequently cited by airport managers: · Provide a high level of customer service for the traveling public and employees. · Improve operational efficiency by reducing the costs of parking operations while maintaining or improving customer service and safety, and enhancing revenues. · Enhance net parking revenues, consistent with achieving airport management's other goals. Each airport operator places different emphasis on these three goals (and subsets of these goals), reflecting the unique characteristics of the airport, the degree of competition (or partnership) with off-airport (private) parking operators, the adequacy of available parking facilities, the interval before the next required parking facility expansion, and other factors. Few operators seek an equal balance among these three goals (i.e., a point in the exact center of the triangle in Figure 2.2), with most operators leaning toward one goal or another. For example, some airport operators prefer to forego potential revenues to provide improved customer service (e.g., provide a high proportion of close-in, covered parking spaces), while other operators choose to enhance net revenues by avoiding or postponing capital costs (e.g., deferring construction of structured parking and, instead, expanding surface lots that are distant but within walking distance of the terminal), and some seek to improve efficiency at the expense of both customer service and revenues. Confirming and Documenting Relevant Management Goals and Objectives The airport operator should have a clear idea of its short- and long-term goals and objectives for the parking program to guide its selection of parking strategies. Furthermore, it is impera- tive that these goals and objectives are consistent with the overall goals and objectives of the organization. With an established foundation of goals and objectives, the airport operator can 5
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6 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Figure 2.1. Typical management process. then determine the technologies and level of investment necessary to implement strategies that support these goals and objectives, and the types of data that must be collected to measure progress. Numerous departments or divisions within an airport organization are affected by, or influ- ence, parking operations. Included are airport operations, finance, properties and concessions, facility maintenance, planning and engineering, information technology (IT), environmental, construction, accounting/audit, public relations, and security/police. These relationships should be considered when identifying and evaluating parking strategies to assure that they support the overall goals and objectives of airport management. It is recommended that representatives from all departments that are affected by, or influence, the parking program be involved in the development and prioritization of goals and objectives. By considering the range of needs and constraints, tradeoffs that achieve the best possible outcome can be developed. Parking strategies reviewed in this research project were grouped according to the three goals important to airport operators. Many of the strategies will add value in achieving one or more air- port operator goals to (1) improve customer service, (2) reduce operating costs, and (3) enhance parking revenue. If the operator has not already defined and documented its goals and objectives for the parking program, these three goals can serve as a starting point for the development of potential goals and objectives. Providing customers with a safe and secure environment is another overarching goal that, although addressed separately, influences parking operations and customer service. Strategies selected in support of the goals and objectives will depend on the relative level of importance placed on each goal identified by the airport operator, as well as any constraints. Figure 2.2. Parking-related goals.