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CATEGORY C: Complementary Customer Services C.1 Vehicle Washing and Servicing, 54 C.2 Concierge Services, 55 C.3 Onsite Sale of Food, Beverages, and Other Products, 56 C.4 Pre-Ordered In-Flight Meals to Go, 57 C.5 Loyalty Programs (Frequent Parker Programs), 58 C.6 Passenger Check-In Kiosks, 60 C.7 Baggage Check-In, 61 C.8 Pet Kennels, 62 C.9 Shaded Spaces, 64 C.10 Shaded Spaces with Solar Panels, 65 C.11 Electric Charging Stations, 66 53

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CATEGORY C Complementary Customer Services C.1 Vehicle Washing and Servicing revenues from this service at Denver International Airport represent less than 0.4% of total parking revenues. Purpose Improved perception of airport amenities. Improve customer service by allowing customers to have their vehicles serviced while they are parked. Enhance revenues Implementation Actions by attracting potential customers from off-airport facilities and Implementation actions include charging fees for additional services. 1. Enter into a business arrangement with a local car wash, service station, or automobile dealership setting forth the Use by Customers range of services to be offered, schedule of rates for stan- dard servicing tasks, and liability insurance. After entering a parking facility, customers either leave their 2. Determine responsibilities for moving, securing, and stor- vehicles with a valet attendant or park them in designated ing customer vehicles. spaces that are often located near the parking office. The cus- 3. Include service in advertising and promotional material. tomers authorize the desired vehicle services and indicate the For example, one airport operator distributed an advertise- date of their scheduled return. Services offered typically ment describing this service offering to gold- and platinum- include washing, waxing, and detailing; fueling; routine ser- level frequent fliers of the hubbing airline. This resulted in vicing (e.g., oil change); dent removal; and tire rotation or many new customers, 60% of whom had previously parked replacement. off airport. Typically, these services are performed by a nearby car wash, service station, or dealership operating under contract Key Considerations to the parking operator. At some airports, however, vehicles Key considerations include are washed by airport parking staff. At some parking facilities, vehicle servicing is performed by one or more automobile 1. Determining if sufficient customer demand for these ser- dealers offering factory-trained mechanics. At these loca- vices justifies the initial startup costs, training, and pro- tions, specific parking spaces are designated for each dealer or motional costs. Demand may be high in locations where make of automobile (i.e., spaces for BMW, Mercedes, etc.). vehicles are soiled by rain and snow. The proportion of valet customers using car washing/servicing varies from about 2% at Denver International Airport (the airport operator has Benefits worked informally with a service station located on air- port property for more than 10 years) to about 30% at Potential benefits include Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport (where vehi- Improved customer service, particularly for business trav- cles are washed by airport staff). elers, high-income travelers, or others willing to pay higher 2. Selecting a reliable and trustworthy service station/car fees for the convenience of having their vehicles serviced wash. Customers expect the airport operator to be respon- while they are away on travel. sible for overseeing the work performed and if the work is Increased revenues resulting from increased market share not satisfactory, customers will complain about the air- and the fees earned from the service station/car wash. The port, not the service station. 54

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Category C: Complementary Customer Services 55 Implementation Costs or drop off their laundry or dry cleaning, (2) purchase groceries or other retail products to be placed in the customers' vehicles Other than marketing/promotion and legal arrangements to upon their return, (3) rent CDs/DVDs for the duration of their allow transferring custody of customer vehicles to other par- trip, and/or (4) have other similar services performed. ties, the initial start-up costs are minimal. Typically, these services are performed by laundry/dry Although most airport operators have customers' cars cleaning establishments or other concessionaires operating washed and serviced offsite, it is possible to wash a car within under contract to the parking operator. At some parking facil- an existing parking structure using small mobile car washing ities, the parking operator operates a CD/DVD rental library equipment, particularly those that use little water. for customer use. The retail products may represent products sold by the airport's in-terminal retail concessionaires, which Ongoing O&M Costs can be selected from a catalog. Ongoing O&M costs are reported to be minimal. Benefits Potential benefits include Implementation Schedule Improved customer service and satisfaction, particularly Implementation, once a satisfactory service station/car for business travelers, high-income travelers, or others wash is selected, can occur within 2 months, depending on willing to pay higher fees for the convenience of having the time required to obtain management and legal approval. services performed while they are traveling. Potential revenues resulting from increased market share Supporting and Complementary Strategies and the fees earned for the concierge services, and poten- and Technologies in This Guidebook tially from the in-terminal concessionaires. The extent of the potential revenue is unknown as the airport parking Vehicle washing and servicing can be offered as an additional facilities offering concierge services are privately operated service at an existing parking facility. Complementary strategies and no data were available on the revenues resulting from and technologies include these operations. Improved perception of airport amenities and products. Valet Parking (B.1, B.2, and B.3), Secure Parking and Secure Parking with Valet Service (B.13), Implementation Actions Loyalty Programs (C.5), Baggage Check-In (C.7), and Implementation actions include Web-Based Reservations (F.3). 1. Enter into a business arrangement with laundry/dry clean- ing or other businesses. Examples of Application 2. Arrange logistics for the placement of orders, pickup and Airports with parking products that include vehicle wash- delivery of laundry or retail products, and for securing ing and servicing are those serving Denver and Minneapolis- these items until the customer returns. St. Paul, as well as many private parking operators. 3. Hire and train parking staff to serve as concierges. 4. Market and promote the service. Key Considerations C.2 Concierge Services Key considerations include Purpose 1. Determining if sufficient customer demand for these ser- Improve customer service by providing a broader range of vices justifies the initial start-up, training, and promo- complementary services. Increase airport revenues. tional costs. It is not known whether concierge services generate Use by Customers positive revenues or operate as a loss-leader to support marketing/brand recognition because all identified exam- After entering a parking facility, using a concierge service or ples of concierge services were offered at parking facilities service from another staff member located in the parking office operated by private entities that did not share revenue or or other nearby location, customers can arrange to (1) pick up profit/loss data.

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56 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies 2. Selecting reliable and trustworthy service providers, and Use by Customers provisions for the pick up, delivery, and storage of customer orders. After entering a parking facility, customers can purchase 3. Recognizing that customers will expect the airport opera- food, snacks, and beverages from vending machines, a coffee tor to be responsible for the services performed (i.e., dry cart, or a small retail establishment. In addition to food or clearing ready and garments cleaned satisfactorily) and will beverages, other products may be sold (e.g., traveler-oriented complain about the airport if the service is not delivered as products, such as those sold in hotel lobbies or at airport expected. newsstands). 4. Avoiding distribution of candy or maps to exiting cus- tomers. One parking operator reported that such "gifts" Benefits were unsuccessful because customers did not trust the Potential benefits include candy, and local residents, who account for the majority of parking customers, do not need maps. Improved customer service and satisfaction, particularly for business travelers. Implementation Costs Potential revenues from the sale of goods and services. Improved perception of airport amenities and products. The implementation costs are minimal. Implementation Actions Ongoing O&M Costs Implementation actions include Ongoing O&M costs are reported to be minimal. 1. Determine the mix of food and products desired by park- ing patrons, an optimal location (i.e., along a major pedes- Implementation Schedule trian path) where these items can be offered, the likely Once a satisfactory service provider is selected, implemen- volume of business, and the size of the establishment this tation can occur within less than 2 months depending on the volume warrants. time required for management and legal approval. 2. Prepare concession terms, prepare and disseminate an invitation for bids, advertise, and award a concession con- tract for the service(s). Supporting and Complementary Strategies 3. Help concessionaire(s) market and promote the service(s). and Technologies in This Guidebook Valet Parking (B.1, B.2, and B.3), Key Considerations Secure Parking and Secure Parking with Valet Service (B.13), Key considerations include Loyalty Programs (C.5), Baggage Check-In (C.7), and 1. Determining if sufficient customer demand exists for Web-Based Reservations (F.3). these services. (See reference to former kiosk at Seattle- Tacoma International Airport under Examples of Appli- Examples of Application cation.) Vending machines appear to be popular because of their relatively low investment and ongoing O&M costs. As part of the Gateway valet parking program at Vancou- Revenues from vending machines or food kiosks located ver International Airport, concierge services are offered, in parking facilities are typically included in reported air- including dry cleaning, ordering flowers, and other services. portwide food/product sales and not reported separately. Private parking operators, including Red Rocket in Santa Thus, revenue data from sales in parking facilities were not Clara (serving Mineta San Jose International Airport), offer available. similar services. 2. Selecting suitable site(s). The site must be visible, but should not interfere with pedestrian traffic and flow. At some air- ports, pedestrian traffic is dispersed along multiple paths, C.3 Onsite Sale of Food, Beverages, reducing the business opportunities at any one location. and Other Products 3. Recognizing that parking facilities with "captive markets," Purpose such as those where large groups of passengers must wait for shuttle buses or arriving airline passengers, are ideal Improve customer service by providing a broader range of locations for these services. (See reference to consolidated complementary services. Increase airport revenues. rental car centers under Examples of Application.)

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Category C: Complementary Customer Services 57 4. Considering that, depending on their location(s) and con- figuration(s), permanent or fixed retail establishments will need to comply with local health, building, and fire codes. Compliance may trigger the installation of fire sprinklers, plumbing, or other equipment--not otherwise required-- which will increase the construction cost of the parking facility. (See reference to former kiosk at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport under Examples of Application.) Implementation Costs The primary costs are those associated with preparing and awarding a concession contract. These costs are minimal. Ongoing O&M Costs Ongoing O&M costs, other than those related to the over- Source: Jacobs Consultancy. sight of contractors, are reported to be minimal. Figure C.3. Miami International Airport. Implementation Schedule Implementation, once the satisfactory service site(s) and C.4 Pre-Ordered In-Flight Meals to Go concessionaire(s) are selected, can occur within 4 months Purpose depending on the time required to determine a site location and achieve approval of the concession contract. Improve customer service by allowing customers to pre- order and pick up ready-to-eat meals when they park. Enhance Supporting and Complementary Strategies revenue by providing an additional source of revenue. and Technologies in This Guidebook Use by Customers Economy/Long-Duration Parking (A.3) and Cell Phone Lots (A.6). Before arriving at a parking facility, customers use the Internet or telephone to select and order a freshly prepared meal from a menu of available choices. Customers can pick Examples of Application up their orders at the parking office or other location, after Other than vending machines (see Figure C.3), no exam- they have parked their vehicles but before they board the ples of U.S. airports offering onsite retail sales were identified. shuttle bus. The meals can be carried through security (as In the late 1990s, a coffee kiosk was located in the main park- they contain no liquids or gels) and onto the aircraft. The ing structure at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport near meals can be heated just before they are to be picked up by a a busy sky bridge, but this kiosk has since been eliminated. customer or, alternatively, they can be heated during the cus- It was reported that the kiosk did not comply with health tomers' journey using a chemical heat pack, which may be department and local building codes, and did not generate included with the meal. significant revenue for the concessionaire or the airport. An outside contractor is used to prepare the meals and Food/beverage and retail shops, as well as coffee carts, are deliver them to the parking facility. located in the lobbies of several consolidated rental car facil- ities, including those located at the airports serving Dallas/ Benefits Fort Worth, Phoenix, and San Francisco. These concessions, Reported benefits include unlike those in public parking facilities, have "captive" mar- kets consisting of rental car customers (and their traveling Improved customer service and satisfaction, particularly for companions) waiting to pick up a rental car. The ground business travelers or others who place a high value on time, floors of many non-airport parking structures contain stores, prefer not to shop for meals in the airport terminal, or pre- shops, or restaurants, especially those located in urban areas. fer the higher quality meals available through this service. Typically, these retail facilities do not rely entirely upon park- Creation of brand loyalty because the service is attractive ing facilities to generate a customer base. to repeat customers.

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58 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Improved revenues as a result of the additional product Implementation Schedule sold, and potentially improved market share over com- petitors that do not provide pre-ordered meals. The schedule is unknown, but is expected to require 6 months or more, including actions required to obtain Implementation Actions management approval, arranging a contract with a food ven- dor, and modifying a website to display the menu or provide Implementation actions include a link to the vendor's website. 1. Conduct market research to determine the size of the Supporting and Complementary Strategies potential customer market, preferred meal choices, and and Technologies in This Guidebook willingness to purchase meals at a parking facility. 2. Interview and select food contractor who will prepare and Valet Parking (B.1, B.2, and B.3), deliver meals. Agree upon menu choices, prices, required Secure Parking and Secure Parking with Valet Service (B.13), lead time for orders, and business terms. Loyalty Programs (C.5), 3. Develop food storage area in parking offices or area of Baggage Check-In (C.7), and high pedestrian activity in a parking structure or lot. Web-Based Reservations (F.3). 4. Provide method for customers to order and pre-pay for meals via the Internet or telephone. Assure that informa- Examples of Application tion is reliably and accurately shared with food contractor and parking staff. Pre-ordered in-flight meals were available at a parking structure operated by off-airport operator "Wally Park," serv- Key Considerations ing Los Angeles International Airport. This service has been discontinued because of competition from the food and bev- Those identified by airport operators include erage concessions located after security checkpoints inside the 1. Extent of the customer market for this product, which terminal. The improved quality, availability, and lower costs appears best suited for airports with large volumes of long- of food for sale near the aircraft gates reduced the attractive- haul flights (e.g., 2 hours or more) and a high proportion ness of the pre-ordered meals, which had been provided by or large volume of business travelers. SkyMeals of Long Beach, CA. 2. Concentrated circulation paths within a parking facility that allow a single meal pick-up point to serve all cus- C.5 Loyalty Programs tomers, as opposed to dispersed paths. 3. Availability of freshly prepared meals (as opposed to pre- (Frequent Parker Programs) packaged meals) from a nearby, reliable provider. Purpose 4. Current Transportation Security Administration (TSA) baggage and passenger screening regulations. Improve parking revenues by maintaining or increasing 5. Terms of airport business arrangements with in-terminal market share versus off-airport competitors. Improve service food and beverage concessionaires. In some locations, this by determining the preferences of the most frequent parking product may be viewed as competing with these conces- customers. sionaires, who may have an exclusive contract. Use by Customers Implementation Costs Customers who participate in a frequent parker program offered by the airport or parking operator receive points that, The primary costs are associated with developing a website depending on the specific program, can be applied toward or telephone system to allow customers to order meals, the available gifts, reduced cost or free parking, or airline miles. cost of a refrigerated food storage area, and the staff time Customers register for the program using the Internet or needed to distribute the meals and oversee/market the pro- mail-back forms. gram and food vendor. Benefits Ongoing O&M Costs Potential benefits of loyalty programs include Key ongoing costs include those for the staff handing out meals and overseeing the program and food vendor. Costs Encourages repeat customers and thereby improves or would also be incurred for updating the menu (unless the maintains market share by providing benefits to repeat menu is hosted on the food contractor's website). customers.

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Category C: Complementary Customer Services 59 Provides data to mine for future parking initiatives and customer contact information (i.e., e-mail addresses or other contact information), which can be used for cus- tomer satisfaction surveys and tests of new products or services. Implementation Actions 1. Determine number and frequency of returning parking customers (could be attained from license plate inventory). 2. Conduct customer outreach focus groups to determine level of interest and what rewards (e.g., gifts, discounted or free parking, or airline miles) would interest customers. Key Considerations Source: Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport. Those identified by airport operators include Figure C.5a. Frequent parker rewards program at 1. Acquisition of software to establish and operate the Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport. program. 2. Ongoing costs to operate the program and purchase gifts Supporting and Complementary Strategies or miles for customers. and Technologies in This Guidebook 3. Use of airline miles may be popular at an airport where Monthly Billing--Pay per Use (B.6), one airline has a large market share. Reserved Parking Zone--Pay per Use (B.7), For example, at Wilkes-Barre/Scranton International Guaranteed Space--Unlimited Use (B.8), and Airport, to be eligible for frequent parker program partic- Web-Based Reservations (F.3). ipation, customers must fly 50,000 miles or more per year with one of the airlines serving the airport and park in des- Examples of Application ignated spaces in the parking structure. Airports with loyalty programs include those serving St. Louis (e.g., Super Park operated by Central Parking Sys- Implementation Costs tems) and Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky (e.g., CVG Parking Specific costs were not reported. The key costs are those for Advantage), as well as most private off-airport parking opera- developing the website or telephone system and the initial tors (including those that operate on- and off-airport parking marketing program. facilities). See Figures C.5a and C.5b. Ongoing O&M Costs Key ongoing O&M costs include 1. Staff costs for maintaining the website and software that tracks individual customer accounts, and interacting with customers. 2. Marketing and promoting the program. 3. Costs of rewards, including allowing free parking or pur- chasing the gifts or airline miles. Implementation Schedule The schedule is unknown, but is expected to require 6 months or more, including the actions required to obtain Source: St. Louis International Airport. management approval, acquiring the necessary software, implementing the website, and marketing and promotional Figure C.5b. Frequent parker rewards catalog for activities. St. Louis International Airport.

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60 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies As noted earlier, Wilkes-Barre/Scranton International Air- support system implementation and maintenance, if the port has a frequent parker program, which is available only to airport does not have a common-use system. members of elite airline mileage programs. A customer who has earned 50,000 or more miles per year and participates in Key Considerations a major airline frequent flyer program is eligible to obtain a Those identified by airport operators include permit that grants access to convenient terminal garage park- ing. The cost of parking in the dedicated area is the same as 1. Whether a common-use ticketing system is in use at the air- the cost to park in adjacent facilities. port. Parking is unlikely to be the driver for implementing such a system, but rather an additional user if the system exists. C.6 Passenger Check-In Kiosks 2. Extent of demand for this product. An increasing proportion of airline passengers arrive at the airport Purpose with preprinted boarding passes obtained using the Improve customer service by permitting customers to Internet or other source (e.g., check-in kiosks available check in for their flights and receive boarding passes in a park- in hotel lobbies). Thus, demand for this strategy may be ing facility, including those located away from the terminal declining. area (e.g., economy lots requiring the use of shuttle buses). 3. Willingness of the larger airlines to participate in this program, including installation of kiosks and considera- Use by Customers tion of the ongoing maintenance costs. This is less of a consideration at airports with common-use ticketing While walking to the terminal or before boarding a shuttle equipment. vehicle that transports customers to the terminal, the customer 4. Implementation costs, including costs of kiosks and sup- uses a credit card or airline confirmation number to obtain a porting networks, particularly at airports where multiple boarding pass from an electronic self-service ticketing kiosk or kiosks are required. Airports with concentrated pedestrian a common-use ticketing kiosk. The customer may then pro- paths, dominant hubbing airline(s), or common-use equip- ceed directly to security upon arrival at the terminal building. ment would require less equipment. In addition to printing a boarding pass (and sometimes 5. Maintenance costs, including provisions for repairing baggage tags), customers can change flights or seat assign- equipment failures or service outages, and customer ser- vice implications caused by unreliable equipment. ments, print receipts, and perform other functions typically 6. Existence of a parking facility that provides a suitable loca- offered by self-service ticketing kiosks serving one airline or tion(s) to install equipment. The location should be multiple airlines. weather protected and heated; secure, well lit, and under Benefits surveillance (similar to an ATM machine) to avoid van- dalism; and provide access to a secure communication Potential benefits include network suitable for use by the airlines. The parking facil- Enhanced customer service, particularly for passengers ity also should offer concentrated passenger flows, so that traveling only with carry-on baggage, because this option only a few kiosks are required. allows them to bypass the ticket counter. 7. Foreknowledge that this strategy is not suitable in a sur- Improved market share from offering customers a service face parking lot because passenger flows are not suffi- not generally available at privately operated parking lots. ciently concentrated. Implementation Actions Implementation Costs Implementation actions include Each common-use self-ticketing kiosk costs approximately $10,000 to $15,000 to install, depending on the equipment 1. Confirm that a market for this service exists. and location. 2. Confirm the availability of suitable technology (i.e., common-use ticketing kiosks). Ongoing O&M Costs 3. Select suitable location(s) to install the kiosks and provide the necessary communications and power systems. The costs of ongoing operation (maintaining ticket stock), 4. Coordinate with the airlines that have the largest market maintenance, and surveillance of the kiosks are the responsi- share to determine their willingness to participate and bility of the airport operator.

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Category C: Complementary Customer Services 61 checked bag plus airline bag check fee) and boarding pass. Bag- gage is stored securely by the baggage agent (typically a third- party baggage handler or concessionaire), who transports the bags to the appropriate airline where they are processed and screened with other checked baggage. Benefits Potential benefits include Enhanced customer service for passengers who are check- ing baggage, because they can bypass the ticket counter. Improved market share by offering customer service not generally available at privately operated parking lots. Implementation Actions Figure C.6. Common-use self-ticketing kiosk. 1. Determine if an adequate market exists for this service, and if the airport operator is willing to subsidize the oper- ation, if necessary. Implementation Schedule 2. Determine which airlines are willing to participate and ascertain their market shares. About 2 to 4 months are required to approve, design, and 3. Select a third-party baggage handling company that will be install a kiosk, depending on the availability of supporting responsible for coordination with the airlines and TSA. cable and power. 4. Construct the baggage counter and baggage storage area. 5. Market, advertise, and promote the service. Supporting and Complementary Strategies and Technologies in This Guidebook Key Considerations Baggage Check-In (C.7). Those identified by airport operators include Examples of Application 1. Determination of whether sufficient business exists to sup- port this service. The primary market consists of domestic, Airports with passenger check-in kiosks (see Figure C.6) at non-business passengers with several pieces of checked a remote parking facility (or other off-airport location) baggage who typically check in 1 to 2 hours in advance of include those serving Las Vegas, Minneapolis-St. Paul, San their flight departures, are traveling on participating airlines, Francisco, and Vancouver. and are willing to pay baggage handling fees in addition to the airline bag check fees. Not all airlines participate in these services, and the service is not available to passengers on C.7 Baggage Check-In international flights. Purpose At some airports, the primary market consists of passen- gers who are non-resident, non-business customers travel- Improve customer service and enhance market share by ing to/from destination resorts (e.g., casinos) or cruise ships. permitting customers to leave their checked bags and receive 2. At several locations, the airport operator has chosen to boarding passes in a parking structure or facility located away subsidize the cost of this service because the fees (e.g., from the terminal area (e.g., economy lots requiring the use $3/bag) charged by the third-party baggage handling com- of shuttle buses), thereby avoiding having to carry bags on a pany are insufficient to cover the costs, particularly during shuttle vehicle. initial years of the service. 3. Airports where this service has been implemented (e.g., Use by Customers San Francisco International Airport) report that, after the When entering the parking facilities or before boarding a airlines initiated bag check fees, demand for this service shuttle bus, customers leave their checked bags with an atten- declined or remained steady (despite increasing passenger dant and pay a small fee for the bag service (e.g., $3 per traffic).

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62 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies 4. Availability of an appropriate location for baggage check-in within the parking facility. The site should provide for a staffed baggage check-in counter (which requires electrical power and--ideally--is climate controlled) and should have adjacent, secure, weather-protected, baggage storage immediately adjacent to the vehicle to be used to transport the baggage securely to the terminal. Passenger flows within the parking facility should be concentrated so that a single counter/area can serve all customers. Implementation Costs The major implementation costs include those for 1. Staff time to analyze the size of the market and select a bag- Source: Jacobs Consultancy. gage handling company, which may involve issuance of a Figure C.7. Baggage check at long-term parking Request for Proposal (RFP). facility, San Francisco International Airport. 2. Construction of the baggage counter and storage area. Secure modular containers could be used for storage. 3. Electrical power, telephone/communication, and data lines. location, and less than 1% of passengers used it at two other locations. Ongoing O&M Costs These three remote locations being used for baggage Ongoing airport operator O&M costs are minimal. check-in were located between 10 and 20 miles from LAX. Baggage check was available for $5 for up to two checked bags on most domestic airlines, except Southwest Airlines and US Implementation Schedule Airways. The cutoff time for baggage check was 3 hours prior The implementation schedule varies based on the time to flight time. The estimated annual operating costs for lim- required to negotiate with the third-party baggage handling ited hours of operation at the three locations, plus personnel company and the airlines. Total implementation time may vary to accept the bags at the airport's international terminal from a minimum of 3 months (assuming a sole source award to where they were processed, was approximately $250,000. The a baggage handling company) to 12 months (assuming a com- majority of the costs were subsidized by the airport operator. petitive proposal process) depending on the time required for The remote baggage check did not generate new express bus contract negotiation, approvals, and initial start up. passengers. Supporting and Complementary Strategies and Technologies in This Guidebook C.8 Pet Kennels Passenger Check-In Kiosks (C.6). Purpose Improve customer service by offering customers the abil- Examples of Application ity to board a pet while they travel. Increase revenue from fees As of 2009, third-party concessionaires offering this service earned for the provision of an additional product. include BAGS, Inc. and Bags-to-Go. San Francisco Inter- national Airport offers baggage check-in at a remote parking Use by Customers facility (see Figure C.7). Similar services are operated in remote locations, but not parking facilities, near the airports Customers bring their pets to the airport, board them in a serving Las Vegas and Vancouver. licensed kennel, and park at the kennel. When the parking facility is co-located with a kennel, it is sometimes referred to Remote baggage check-in was available for passengers as a "park-and-bark." using remote express bus services to Los Angeles Inter- national Airport (LAX) from September 2006 to March At these airport pet kennels, similar to other boarding ken- 2008. This service was discontinued because of low demand. nels, customers can arrange to have their pets bathed, groomed, Less than 2% of the bus passengers used the service at one or attended to medically by a veterinarian for an additional fee.

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Category C: Complementary Customer Services 63 When customers return to the airport, they can pick up their Key Considerations vehicles and pets at the same location. Those identified by airport parking providers include Benefits 1. Availability of a suitable site for the kennel. To enhance customer level of service, the kennel should be located Reported benefits include close to the major airport entry road, easy for customers Increased customer service for parking patrons and airport to find, and close to parking. 2. Business terms with the existing parking operator. Most employees, who can also use the service. concession contracts with parking operators and some Additional airport revenues derived from the kennel, which management agreements grant the concessionaire or man- is typically operated as a concession. At Minneapolis-St. Paul agement company the exclusive right to operate public International Airport, the concessionaire pays 8% of its gross parking facilities located on the airport. revenues plus building and ground rentals. Some airports 3. Business terms with the kennel operator. Some airports receive over $100,000 annually in concession fees paid by charge only land rent, while others charge building and kennel operators. land rent plus a percentage of gross revenues derived from Increased revenues generated through attracting additional the kennel and the parking operations. These terms vary customers to the parking facility. depending on whether the airport operator or the conces- sionaire is responsible for constructing the site improve- Implementation Actions ments, including construction of the kennel. Implementation actions were reported to include 4. Number of parking spaces to be provided at the kennel. The kennel at Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport 1. Select site with a 1-acre minimum to allow for parking, the provides about 100 public spaces. kennel, and runs/exercise areas. The site should provide "easy on/easy off" access. Implementation Costs 2. Decide whether to use an existing building or a new building. Implementation costs, other than site preparation and staff 3. Prepare and issue requests for information followed by costs for preparing and awarding the contract, are minimal. requests for bids or RFPs. The RFP should be carefully structured to attract businesses experienced in operating Ongoing O&M Costs facilities that provide for boarding pets, animal day care, Ongoing costs, other than for oversight of the concession- and training. The RFP should require that aire, are minimal. The concessionaire is responsible for a a. Customers are allowed to drop off or pick up their pets marketing program, public relations, and advertising. during the same hours that airline passengers, unlike traditional kennel customers, arrive at, and depart from, Implementation Schedule the airport. Provision should be made for customers who may experience flight delays and be unable to pick Obtaining approval from management, issuing the RFP/bid up their pets at the originally scheduled times. documents, and project start-up can require 6 to 12 months. b. The kennel be staffed by qualified individuals with access to a veterinarian or a paraveterinary technician. Supporting and Complementary Strategies c. Kennel operators be limited to organizations qualified and Technologies in This Guidebook to operate a kennel, including those that operate ken- Vehicle Washing and Servicing (C.1), nels nationwide, as well as local not-for-profit animal Onsite Sale of Food, Beverages, and Other Products (C.3), protection services. and d. "Exotic" pets as well as dogs and cats can be boarded. Passenger Check-In Kiosks (C.6). e. Upscale services that provide for training and groom- ing are considered. Examples of Application f. A discount rate is provided for people who work at the airport. Airports with parking products that include pet kennels 4. Select and award contract. Alternatively, enter into a sole- include those serving Jacksonville and Minneapolis-St. Paul source business agreement with a not-for-profit organiza- (see Figure C.8). Privately operated kennels marketing to airline tion (e.g., the ASPCA). passengers include those located in Atlanta, Charlotte, Houston

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64 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Improved service for customers parking in surface lots. Increased choice of parking options and customer services. Implementation Actions Implementation actions include 1. Estimate cost per space of constructing a shade structure complying with local building codes. 2. Determine if higher fees are to be charged for the shaded spaces, and how the customer base will react to the addition of a new product/service. The estimated net new revenues should allow recovery of amortized construction costs. 3. Determine which spaces are to be covered and, if they are to be nested within a larger lot, how access/egress will be controlled. Key Considerations Those identified by airport operators include Source: Metropolitan Airports Commission. 1. Structural systems that support shade canopies or covers must comply with local building codes. In areas subject to Figure C.8. Pet boarding at Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport. strong winds or snow loads, the cost per square foot of these structures can be almost as much as the cost of a parking structure. (Hobby and Bush Intercontinental), New Orleans, Orlando, and 2. Because of the cost of construction, shade canopies may be Philadelphia, operated by "Pet Paradise" and other companies. desirable in climates where sun is a problem, but not in locations that experience heavy snow and ice loads. C.9 Shaded Spaces 3. Determine if the potential higher fees (and incremental revenues) from shaded spaces will be sufficient to recover Purpose the costs of the canopies. One airport operator (at Dallas/ Improve comfort and convenience for customers who Fort Worth) reported a 3- to 4-year return-on-investment would otherwise have to park in uncovered areas. Potentially from adding shade canopies, while other (smaller) opera- increase revenues if higher fees are charged for covered spaces tors reported subsidizing the cost of shade canopies. within a parking lot. 4. Ideally, the shade should cover most of the vehicle and pro- vide protection from wind-driven rain. Such shade cover Use by Customers allows customers to more comfortably load/unload baggage from their vehicles during rain storms. Customers parking in shaded spaces in surface lots or on the rooftop of parking structures have the comfort of their Implementation Costs vehicles being protected from snow, rain, hail, and bright sun when lightweight covers, often made of fabric, plastic, or metal The primary costs are for the shade structure, as presented sheets, are used to shade all or a portion of each space. In the in Appendix A. southwestern United States and other regions, these covers are referred to as shade ramadas. In many parking lots, particu- Ongoing O&M Costs larly privately operated parking facilities, customers parking The primary O&M costs are associated with structural in shaded spaces are charged an extra fee or a higher fee. maintenance, which is dependent on the material used (e.g., fabric, metal, plastic) and local conditions (i.e., deterioration Benefits caused by sun). Potential benefits may include Implementation Schedule Improved customer service and convenience, particularly in communities that frequently experience inclement or It is estimated that the total time to implement, including very hot weather. obtaining approval from management may be 4 to 9 months,

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Category C: Complementary Customer Services 65 including 1 to 3 months for design and 2 to 4 months for 2. Estimate cost per space of constructing and installing solar construction. panels and supporting infrastructure. 3. Determine opportunities for a public-private partnership Supporting and Complementary Strategies involving local electric utility, state or federal agencies, and and Technologies in This Guidebook private developer responsible for installation and mainte- Economy/Long-Duration Parking (A.3), nance of solar panels. Business Parking (B.5), 4. Compare estimated costs and benefits of installing solar Secure Parking and Secure Parking with Valet Service panels versus conventional shade structures. (B.13), and Shaded Spaces with Solar Panels (C.10). Key Considerations Examples of Application Those identified by airport operators include Airports with shaded rooftop parking include those serving 1. Availability of funding or grants from state or federal Albuquerque, Las Vegas, Little Rock, Phoenix, and Salt Lake agencies, or public-private partnerships (e.g., the partner- City. Shaded spaces in surface lots can be found at the airports ship of Pacific Gas and Electric Company and World serving Abilene, Dallas/Fort Worth, and numerous privately Water & Solar Technologies Corp. at Fresno Yosemite operated lots. International Airport). The availability of financial sup- port appears to be a key determinant in the project's finan- C.10 Shaded Spaces cial feasibility. with Solar Panels 2. Evaluation of whether to install solar panels in a park- ing lot or at a free-standing site. Some airport opera- Purpose tors determined that a free-standing solar farm was Improve comfort and convenience for customers who would preferable to panels located above a surface parking lot otherwise have to park in uncovered areas. Increase parking because the: revenues. Support airport and regional sustainability and envi- a. Costs of the infrastructure (including solar track- ronmental goals (i.e., reduce the environmental footprint). ing) required for a small solar panel installation were Reduce electrical power needs and airport operating costs. lower. b. Structural grid used to support the panels was not con- Use by Customers sistent with that required for a parking lot. c. Local electric utility or private developer was willing to The vehicles of customers parking in surface lots or on the participate in a small solar farm. rooftops of parking structures are protected from snow, rain, hail, and bright sun by solar panels that shade all or a portion of each space. Implementation Costs Benefits The primary cost would be for installing the shade structure, as presented in Appendix A. State and/or federal financial Potential benefits are reported to include grants may be available to assist with the costs of purchasing Improved customer service and convenience, particularly and installing solar panels. for customers parking in surface parking lots and at air- ports that frequently experience hot, sunny days. Ongoing O&M Costs Reduced environmental footprint resulting from reduced utility needs (i.e., compatibility with management's Ongoing O&M costs may be the responsibility of the par- sustainability/green airport goals). ticipating private company. Increased revenues if higher fees are charged for covered spaces in a parking facility, and reduced utility costs. Implementation Schedule Implementation Actions It is estimated that the total time to implement, including the actions required to obtain management approval may be Implementation actions include 12 months or more because of the extent of the coordination 1. Determine if proposed lot (or rooftop) provides a suitable required among the utility, airport operator, state/federal location for solar panels. agencies, and private developer.

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66 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies C.11 Electric Charging Stations Purpose Improve comfort and convenience for customers using "plug-in" electrically powered vehicles. Support airport and regional sustainability and environmental goals (i.e., reduce the environmental footprint). Use by Customers Customers with plug-in electric vehicles use charging sta- tions while their vehicles are parked at the airport. Benefits Source: HOK, Inc. Potential benefits are reported to include Figure C.10a. Solar panels shading parking at Vacaville, California, office campus. Improved customer service and convenience for customers operating electric vehicles. Supporting and Complementary Strategies Improved perception of airport sustainability and environ- and Technologies in This Guidebook mental friendliness. Increased revenues if fees are charged for the use of a Economy/Long-Duration Parking (A.3), charging station. Business Parking (B.5), and Secure Parking and Secure Parking with Valet Service (B.13). Implementation Actions Examples of Application Implementation actions include Airports with solar panels include Fresno Yosemite, 1. Determine if sufficient electric vehicles operate at the air- Charlotte Douglas, and Denver International airports, port to warrant installation of charging stations now or in although, none of these airport operators chose to install the the future. panels over a parking lot or structure. Non-airport locations 2. Determine whether to purchase charging stations or allow with solar panels above surface parking lots include those a concessionaire to install and operate the stations. in privately owned lots in California, such as Santa Rosa 3. Determine where to place the charging stations. (Agilent Technologies) and Sunnyvale (Applied Materials), 4. Determine what, if any, customer charges will be associ- and Nevada's Springs Preserve Parking Lot in Las Vegas (see ated with the charging stations and if owners of the elec- Figures C.10a and C.10b). trically powered vehicles will be required to have a permit to use the stations. Key Considerations 1. Extent of demand for charging stations. 2. Cost to customer for using the service. If customers are to be charged a fee, it may be appropriate for a concession- aire to provide and operate the charging stations. 3. If the stations are to be provided and operated by a con- cessionaire, decide whether to require installation of a common-use station or to allow installation of stations that can only be used by customers who are subscribers to a specific charging network. 4. Determine if customers are allowed to park for long Source: Clark County Department of Public Works. durations at the available charging stations (i.e., limiting Figure C.10b. Spring Preserve Parking Lot in access to other customers, including those parked for Las Vegas, Nevada. short durations).

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Category C: Complementary Customer Services 67 Implementation Costs The primary cost is that associated with the charging station. A variety of charging stations are now available-- coin operated, solar-panel powered, and electrically powered. These designs and technologies are expected to change as plug-in electric vehicles become more popular. One currently available product (Smartlet) costs between $1,000 to $2,000 per charging station. Some stations are mounted on poles, such as light poles. Other charging stations in Davis (CA), were reported to cost between $6,000 and $7,000 to replace. Ongoing O&M Costs Source: ABC News. Ongoing O&M costs are expected to be minimal and may Figure C.11a. Charging station. be the responsibility of the concessionaire. Implementation Schedule It is estimated that the total time to implement, including obtaining management approval may be 3 to 12 months. Supporting and Complementary Strategies and Technologies in This Guidebook Source: Port of Seattle. Hourly/Short-Duration Parking (A.1). Valet Parking--Curbside Drop-Off/Pickup (B.1), Figure C.11b. Ad for free plug-in electric car charging. Reserved Parking Zone--Pay per Use (B.7). Secure Parking and Secure Parking with Valet Service (B.13), and Shaded Spaces with Solar Panels (C.10). Examples of Application At Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, six spaces are offered for electric plug-ins. These spaces are available on a first-come, first-served basis. The electrical charging is offered free of charge. Los Angeles International Airport provided free charging stations for use by the General Motors EV-1, but these have been removed. Non-airport locations with electric charg- ing stations accessible to the public include those in many pub- lic on-street locations in California (e.g., Arcata, Davis, San Source: Kimley Horn & Associates. Francisco, and San Jose), Seattle (City Hall and library), and in the state of Washington. See Figures C.11a through C.11c. Figure C.11c. Munich Airport.