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CATEGORY D: Parking Space Availability and Guidance Systems D.1 Space Availability via the Internet Prior to Arrival, 69 D.2 Space Availability via Phone/Radio Prior to Arrival, 70 D.3 Space Availability by Facility, 71 D.4 Space Availability by Parking Level, 73 D.5 Space Availability by Aisle/Sector, 75 D.6 Space Availability by Space, 76 D.7 Managed Fills, 78 D.8 Parking Compartments, 80 D.9 Space Locators, 82 D.10 In-Vehicle Parking Technologies, 84 68

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CATEGORY D Parking Space Availability and Guidance Systems D.1 Space Availability via Implementation Actions the Internet Prior to Arrival Systems providing space availability information for indi- Purpose vidual parking facilities are standard at airports, especially at those airports with multiple parking facilities. Space informa- Improve customer service by advising parking patrons of tion is typically determined using differential counts derived the number of spaces available prior to their departure from from magnetic loop detectors embedded in the pavement at homes, offices, etc. Reduce vehicle miles traveled by customers the entries and exits of each parking facility, but can also be who would, if uninformed, travel to facilities that are fully gathered using other sensor technologies, providing space occupied. availability by level, sector, or space (see Sections D.4, D.5, and D.6). Use by Customers Implementation actions for external displays of parking availability include As customers prepare to depart their homes, offices, etc., and travel to the airport, they check an Internet website that 1. Identify information to display (e.g., real-time updates provides information on the specific numbers of available based on entry/exit counts versus manual updates based on spaces or an indication of whether or not spaces are available. parking operations staff observations). This action is easiest to implement during the design of parking facilities. 2. Determine whether or not the parking revenue control Benefits system requires any upgrades or modifications to be able to provide real-time information to an Internet server. Benefits reported by airport operators include 3. Design website(s) interface(s) to display information (i.e., Reduced chance of a poor customer experience because colors, fonts, layout) and potential links to other relevant customers receive information that assists them in avoid- sites. ing parking facilities that have few or no empty spaces. 4. Identify entity to host website. Typically, the airport website Reduced vehicle miles traveled by customers and reduced hosts the page(s) associated with parking facility occupancy. emissions since customers are less likely to have to circu- late among parking facilities to locate available spaces. Key Considerations Additional data since the technologies used to collect space-availability information also generate detailed data Those identified by airport operators include on customer use of individual parking facilities, which can 1. Website must provide reliable and consistent access to be used to analyze trends in space occupancy and to sup- customers with minimal down time. Data presented must port planning and financial decisions. be accurate. Provision of a means of communication with customers 2. Website must update at frequent intervals (e.g., 15 min- away from airport property, which offers opportunities for utes) to provide near real-time information on space marketing/advertising. occupancy. 69

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70 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Implementation Costs St. Paul, Portland (OR), and Washington, DC (Reagan National and Dulles). For most installations, equipment that counts vehicles entering/exiting a facility is a standard component included in the design and construction cost of the parking facility. Addi- D.2 Space Availability via tional costs may include those for designing and implementing Phone/Radio Prior to Arrival any webpages that display occupancy information. Purpose Ongoing O&M Costs Improve customer service by indicating to parking cus- O&M costs for equipment used to count vehicles entering tomers the number of available spaces in each airport park- and exiting parking facilities are typically bundled with O&M ing facility prior to their arrival at the airport. Reduce vehicle costs for the entire parking garage. O&M costs for maintain- miles traveled by customers who would, if uninformed, travel ing the webpage(s) that display occupancy information are to facilities that are fully occupied. often bundled with general airport website management and hosting costs. Use by Customers As customers approach the airport, they can call a toll-free Implementation Schedule airport information number or tune their radios to a dedi- Depending on the facility occupancy module of the rev- cated Highway Advisory Radio (HAR) station. The phone enue control system, the information can be readily obtained number or HAR recording can provide information on the and posted to the airport website. specific numbers of available spaces or just an indication of whether or not spaces are available. Supporting and Complementary Strategies As a variation, one operator allows patrons to send a text and Technologies in This Guidebook message to a phone number. The content of the text message sent indicates when the patron would like to receive a text mes- All other parking space availability and guidance systems sage indicating parking availability (i.e., patrons would send in Category D. "10" if they wanted to receive the information in 10 minutes). Examples of Application Benefits Occupancy of public parking facilities is monitored at most Benefits reported by airport operators include U.S. airports. This information is available via the Internet in real time (see Figure D.1) at the airports serving Minneapolis- Improved customer experience because customers are provided information that will assist them in avoiding parking facilities having few or no empty spaces. Reduced vehicle miles traveled by customers and reduced vehicle emissions since customers are less likely to have to circulate among parking facilities to locate available spaces. Additional data since the technologies used to collect space- availability information also generate detailed data on cus- tomer use of individual parking facilities, which can be used to analyze trends in space occupancy and to support plan- ning and financial decisions. Provision of a means of communication for arriving cus- tomers to receive real-time information about curbside congestion, which may encourage the use of parking or cell phone lots. Implementation Actions Figure D.1. Parking facility availability Systems providing space availability information for individ- display from Minneapolis-St. Paul Interna- ual parking facilities are standard at airports, especially at those tional Airport website. airports with multiple parking facilities. Space information is

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Category D: Parking Space Availability and Guidance Systems 71 typically determined using differential counts derived from Supporting and Complementary Strategies magnetic loop detectors embedded in the pavement at the and Technologies in This Guidebook entries and exits of each parking facility, but can also be gath- All other parking space availability and guidance systems ered using other sensor technologies, providing space availabil- in Category D. ity by level, sector, or space (see Sections D.4, D.5, and D.6). Implementation actions for providing parking availability Examples of Application information via phone or radio include Occupancy of public parking facilities is monitored at most 1. Determine whether the parking revenue control system U.S. airports. Many airports have implemented a telephone requires any upgrades or modifications to be able to pro- line and HAR station that provide real-time occupancy infor- vide real-time information. mation. 2. Determine frequency of updates to the recorded infor- mation. 3. Determine procedures for manually or automatically D.3 Space Availability by Facility updating the recorded information. 4. Obtain necessary telephone number, answering equip- Purpose ment, or HAR transmitter license. Improve customer service by advising parking customers of the number of spaces available in various parking facilities. Key Considerations Reduce vehicle miles traveled by customers who would, if Those identified by airport operators include uninformed, travel to facilities that are fully occupied. 1. Recorded messages on telephone recordings and HAR sta- Use by Customers tion broadcasts must be reliably and consistently available to customers, with minimal down time. Data presented As customers enter the airport or approach individual must be accurate. parking facilities, a display indicates whether parking spaces 2. Recorded messages must be updated regularly (e.g., sev- are available in particular parking facilities. These displays eral times a day, or as conditions change) to provide use- can provide specific numbers of available spaces or just indi- ful information regarding space availability. cate whether they are full or open. 3. Recorded messages must be clear and easily understand- able. The use of messages prerecorded by professionals or Benefits airport public relations staff is recommended. Benefits reported by airport operators include Implementation Costs Improved customer experience because customers are provided information that will assist them in avoiding For most installations, equipment that counts vehicles enter- parking facilities having few or no empty spaces. ing and exiting a facility is a standard component included Reduced vehicle miles traveled by customers and related in the design and construction cost of the parking facility. vehicle emissions since customers are less likely to have to Additional costs would include those for equipment used to circulate among parking facilities to locate available spaces. record and play the messages and, for HAR, installation of Additional data since the technologies used to collect a transmitter. space-availability information also generate detailed data on customer use of individual parking facilities, which can Ongoing O&M Costs be used to analyze trends in space occupancy and to sup- O&M costs for equipment used to count vehicles entering port planning and financial decisions. and exiting parking facilities are typically bundled with O&M Provision of information that can be incorporated into an costs for the entire parking garage. Additional costs include airportwide intelligent transportation system. staff time to update the recorded message and, for HAR, costs to maintain and operate the transmitter. Implementation Actions Systems providing space availability information for individ- Implementation Schedule ual parking facilities are standard at airports, especially at those It is likely that the implementation schedule will be depend- airports with multiple parking facilities. Space information is ent on the time required to arrange for a phone line and typically determined using differential counts derived from acquire a license for a HAR transmitter. magnetic loop detectors embedded in the pavement at the

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72 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies entries and exits of each parking facility, but can also be gath- facilities and the communication link and software controlling ered using other sensor technologies, providing space availabil- the signs. See Appendix A for examples of signage costs. ity by level, sector, or space (see Sections D.4, D.5, and D.6). Implementation actions for external displays of parking Ongoing O&M Costs space availability include O&M costs for equipment used to count vehicles entering 1. Identify locations on entry roads where displays are to be and exiting parking facilities are typically bundled with O&M installed, considering sight distances, nearby distractions, costs for the entire parking facility. O&M costs for external and time/distance available to customers to react to the displays are typically limited to those for the electrical power message. used for variable message displays and the type of signs, as 2. Identify preferred method for transmitting space avail- well as occasional light bulb replacement. ability information to displays (e.g., real-time updates based on entry/exit counts, manual updates based on Implementation Schedule parking operations staff observations). This action is easiest to implement during the design of parking facilities. This strategy is typically implemented as part of garage construction. Thus, the schedule is driven by the planning, 3. Determine information to be displayed on the sign(s). design, and construction of a garage as a whole. Typically, This information can range from "full/open" to actual design and construction of new signs require 2 to 4 months. space counts. Determine if, in addition to the name of each parking facility, information such as parking rates is to be displayed. Supporting and Complementary Strategies 4. Select display technology, considering the advantages and and Technologies in This Guidebook disadvantages of each for the specific application proposed. All other parking space availability and guidance systems An increasing number of airport operators are choosing to in Category D. install light-emitting diode (LED) displays. The benefits of LED over other lighting methods include efficiency (more light per watt), gradual dimming as opposed to burnout, Examples of Application long useful life (i.e., 50,000 hours or more), and the ability Occupancy of public parking facilities is monitored at most to be frequently turned on and off without affecting useful U.S. airports, and most have displays informing patrons of the life. The experience of local highway and public works parking facilities that have available spaces (see Figures D.3a departments with dynamic signage also can be helpful. through D.3c). Airports with displays on the major entry road Key Considerations Those identified by airport operators include 1. Displays indicating parking availability should be located so as to allow patrons adequate time to choose between available parking options. Display locations should also account for other potential visual "clutter" that could make it difficult for patrons to locate and discern parking availability information. 2. Care should be taken when selecting displays to assure that they are clearly visible during both daytime (with and without bright sunlight) and nighttime. Implementation Costs For most installations, equipment that counts vehicles enter- ing and exiting a facility is a standard component and is Source: Jacobs Consultancy. included in the design and construction cost of the parking facility. Additional costs may include those for the external signs Figure D.3a. Example of parking facility availability indicating parking availability at the airport's various parking indicator.

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Category D: Parking Space Availability and Guidance Systems 73 available spaces, and reduce the amount of time required to find parking. Reduce vehicle emissions by reducing the amount of time required to find parking within a parking structure. Use by Customers As customers enter a parking structure, a variable display indicates the number of spaces available on each level. At the entrance to each level, a variable display indicates the avail- ability of spaces on that level. These displays can provide spe- cific numbers of available spaces or just indicate whether spaces are available. Benefits Benefits reported by airport operators include Source: Jacobs Consultancy. Improved customer level-of-service as a result of the reduced time required to locate an available parking space. Figure D.3b. Garage availability at Minneapolis- Reduced vehicle miles traveled and reduced vehicle emis- St. Paul International Airport. sions created by customers looking for available parking spaces, as they are able to bypass full floors. Data generated on use of levels within parking facilities can be used to analyze trends in space occupancy and to sup- port planning and financial decisions. Implementation Actions Systems providing information on the availability of park- ing spaces on individual parking garage levels are common at airports. Information for these systems is typically gathered using induction loop detectors embedded in the pavement at each entry and exit point on a parking level. Typically, these systems are installed during parking garage construction. It is important to determine the preferred sensor technology so that it can be incorporated into the garage design prior to Source: Jacobs Consultancy. construction. Figure D.3c. Parking facility availability indicator at Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport. Key Considerations Those identified by airport operators, assuming that the indicating parking availability by facility include those serving displays are installed in an existing structure rather than as Baltimore, Boston, Denver, and Sacramento. part of the original construction, include 1. The installation plan should minimize disruption to D.4 Space Availability ongoing parking operations. by Parking Level 2. Care should be taken when selecting displays, especially those located near the entry to the structure or a level, to Purpose assure that they are clearly visible during a motorist's Improve customer service by guiding parking patrons to transition from daylight to the dimmer interior of the the levels within a multilevel parking facility that have garage.

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74 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies 3. Displays should be placed so as to assure that they are clearly visible to entering motorists, but out of the way of pedestrian traffic. 4. Displays should be placed so as to assure that motorists see the information at low speeds (i.e., as they pass through the entry plaza) and prior to vertical circulation elements of the garage. 5. The placement of loop detectors requires care to assure that reinforcing steel of the garage structure does not interfere with loop detector operation and that the loop does not detect unintended vehicles (i.e., vehicles travel- ing in adjacent lanes). 6. Differential counting systems require manual adjust- ments, typically on a daily basis, to reconcile the counts to Source: Jacobs Consultancy. the overnight vehicle inventory. 7. Display technology should be selected considering the Figure D.4a. By-floor space availability indicators advantages and disadvantages of each for the specific appli- at Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport. cations proposed. An increasing number of airport opera- tors is choosing to install LED displays. The benefits of LED over other lighting methods include efficiency (more light per watt), gradual dimming as opposed to burnout, long Supporting and Complementary Strategies useful life (i.e., 50,000 hours or more), and the ability to be and Technologies in This Guidebook frequently turned on and off without affecting useful life. All other parking space availability and guidance systems The experience of local highway and public works depart- in Category D. ments with dynamic signage can also be helpful. Examples of Application Implementation Costs Most U.S. airports have by-level counting systems that Costs vary depending on (1) whether the system is installed inform customers of space availability (see Figures D.4a as part of construction of a new garage or installed in an exist- and D.4b). ing garage and (2) the technology used. Installation of vehi- cle detectors and induction loops typically cost $900 to $1,100 per loop, but that cost does not include the costs to connect the loops to a central computer or the costs of the computer and the displays. Costs of these other elements are provided in Appendix A. Ongoing O&M Costs O&M costs related to this strategy are typically bundled with O&M costs for the entire parking garage. Thus, incre- mental costs for the by-level counting system are unavailable. Implementation Schedule When installed as part of new garage construction, the implementation schedule is driven by the overall planning, design, and construction for the new garage. When installed Source: Jacobs Consultancy. in an existing parking structure, the implementation sched- ule is driven by the number of levels and entry points, but can Figure D.4b. Parking availability signs at Brussels require less than 3 months. Airport.

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Category D: Parking Space Availability and Guidance Systems 75 D.5 Space Availability 3. Prepare designs and select vendor and contractor for by Aisle/Sector installation. 4. Assure that detectors/indicators function properly and Purpose reliably, and are well maintained. Improve customer service by guiding parking patrons to areas within a parking facility with available parking spaces Key Considerations and reducing the amount of time required to find an available space. Reduce vehicle emissions by reducing the amount of Those identified by airport operators include time required to find a parking space. 1. Signage placement. Signs indicating available spaces in an aisle or sector are typically hung from the ceiling, which, Use by Customers depending on the garage structural system and dimen- sions, could result in motorists having difficulty locating As customers enter a garage, a variable display indicates the and reading the signs. number of spaces available on each level. At the entrance to 2. Display technology should be selected considering the each level, a variable display indicates the availability of spaces advantages and disadvantages of each for the specific appli- in each direction. At the beginning or end of each aisle (or cation proposed. An increasing number of airport opera- sector), a variable display indicates the availability of spaces tors are choosing to install LED displays. The benefits of in the aisle (or sector). For displays at the entrances to levels LED over other lighting methods include efficiency (more and individual aisles/sectors, the displays can provide specific light per watt), gradual dimming as opposed to burnout, numbers of available spaces or just a green or red signal indi- long useful life (i.e., 50,000 hours or more), and the ability cating whether spaces are available. to be turned on and off frequently without affecting useful If desired, additional sensors can be installed at the ends of life. The experience of local highway and public works aisles so that, as a vehicle enters an aisle, the available space departments with dynamic signage also can be helpful. tally is reduced in anticipation of the vehicle parking in one 3. If installing the system in an existing parking facility, the of the available spaces. installation plan should minimize disruption to ongoing parking operations. 4. Positions of the detector locations should be determined Benefits so as to minimize the number required. Minimizing the Benefits reported by airport operators include number of detectors not only reduces cost, it also reduces the number of opportunities for counting errors because Improved customer level-of-service resulting from the each detector would have a limited probability of an in- reduced time required to locate an available parking space. accurate reading for each vehicle. Reduced vehicle miles traveled, and associated vehicle emis- 5. Differential counting systems require manual adjustments, sions created by patrons looking for available parking typically on a daily basis, to reconcile the aisle/sector counts spaces, as they are able to bypass full aisles/sectors. to the overnight vehicle count. Data generated on use of areas within parking facilities, 6. If employee parking is provided in the facility, the system will which could be used to identify areas for specialized parking. need to account for surges of traffic during shift changes. Lower installation cost than by-space availability systems Also, employees may drive at higher speeds through the (see Section D.6). parking facility, which may affect the ability of the sensors to Ability to track parking occupancy in surface parking facil- accurately count vehicles. ities and on parking garage roofs. 7. To date, the use of induction loop detectors linked to dif- ferential counters is the technology most commonly used to monitor the number of available spaces in an aisle/ Implementation Actions sector. One airport operator uses machine-vision rather 1. Prepare cost-benefit analysis to determine justification of than loop detectors for its by-sector space availability sys- the investment in a by-sector guidance system. tem. With this system, cameras located throughout the 2. Prepare functional plans and specifications identifying loca- parking facility feed video images of the cars passing tions and characteristics of key components (i.e., detector through their field of vision to software that analyzes technology, locations, and display signs inside and outside these images and determines the number of occupied of facility). spaces.

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76 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Implementation Costs empty space. Increase effective capacity of a parking facility by making it easier for customers to locate the last available By-sector guidance system costs typically include the cost spaces in busy facilities or in long aisles. of detectors, small variable message displays for aisles and zones, larger displays for floors or for outside the parking structure, conduit for data transmission to the central com- Use by Customers puter processor, and computing equipment to process the Customers entering a garage see a variable display indi- input from the detectors and provide appropriate instruc- cating the number of spaces available on each level. At the tions for the guide signs. entrance to each level, a variable display indicates the avail- Costs vary depending on (1) whether the system is installed ability of spaces in each direction. At the end of each aisle, a as part of construction of a new garage or in an existing garage variable display indicates the availability of spaces in that and (2) the technology used. One airport operator that installed aisle. In addition, above each space, in a location visible from a machine-vision system in an existing garage reported a cost the end of the aisle, a ceiling-mounted empty/full indicator per space of approximately $400. See Appendix A for further signals whether a space is occupied (typically red) or available information. (typically green--or blue for spaces required by the Americans with Disabilities Act). The displays at the entrances to levels Ongoing O&M Costs and individual aisles can provide specific numbers of avail- able spaces or just an empty or full signal indicating whether O&M costs predominantly consist of costs to maintain the spaces are available. The information from the individual detection equipment and display signs. Additional informa- space detectors updates the space availability information tion is provided in Appendix A. displayed at the entry to the garage, levels, and aisles. Implementation Schedule Benefits Implementation (including actions required to obtain man- Benefits reported by airport operators include agement approval, preparing design and specifications, and installation/testing) can require up to 4 years depending on Very favorable customer reactions, as evidenced by (1) sur- the time required to obtain approval. An actual installation veys that indicated a decrease in the perception of the time required approximately 6 months for 2,700 parking spaces. it takes to find an available parking space, and (2) customer responses during focus groups. Improved customer perception of the parking facility as an Supporting and Complementary Strategies enjoyable parking option. and Technologies in This Guidebook Reduced customer time required to locate an available All other parking space availability and guidance systems parking space. in Category D. Reduced vehicle miles traveled, and associated vehicle emis- sions, by customers looking for available parking spaces. Increased allowable occupancies before a level is closed. Prior Examples of Application to installation of the system, a level would be declared "full" Airports with by-sector guidance include those serving if occupancy exceeded 90%. With the space detectors, the Dallas/Fort Worth (Terminal D Garage), Houston (Bush level is declared "full" when occupancy approaches 100%. Intercontinental, Garage A/B), Raleigh-Durham, and Seattle- Lower construction costs to accommodate projected park- Tacoma. ing demand. In recognition of the difficulty customers have finding the last empty space in a large parking facility, parking structure designers typically include a 10% "circu- D.6 Space Availability by Space lation" allowance when sizing new facilities. If a facility will have a by-space guidance system, the designers can reduce Purpose the circulation allowance to 5% or less. Improve customer service by guiding parking patrons to Increased revenues resulting from the ability to achieve individual parking spaces and reducing the amount of time higher allowable occupancies, which can potentially pro- required to search for an available space. Reduce vehicle vide financial justification for installation of an individual emissions by reducing the amount of time required to find an space guidance system. For example, with a 1,000-space

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Category D: Parking Space Availability and Guidance Systems 77 garage, a by-space guidance system can increase occupancy 5. When configuring conduits and selecting equipment, by 5% or more, effectively adding at least 50 spaces to the consider the possibility of condensation and how mois- capacity of the garage. Constructing these same 50 spaces ture may accumulate. would, at $20,000 per space, cost $1 million. A by-space 6. When evaluating costs, consider the number of dynamic guidance system costing $1,000 per space (for a total instal- signs required, as these significantly increase the per-space lation cost of $1 million) could achieve the same capacity costs. increase as construction and at the same cost, while pro- 7. Systems providing availability information by individual viding the other benefits described in this section. spaces are typically part of larger systems that provide space Increased number of parking spaces per floor. With a by- availability by individual parking facilities (see Section space guidance system, a parking garage can have dead-end D.3), levels within a parking structure (see Section D.4), or aisles, thereby reducing the need for continuous circula- aisles/sectors within a parking facility (see Section D.5). tion capability. 8. By-space availability systems have predominantly been Detailed data on the use of areas and levels within parking installed in parking garages so that the individual indicators/ facilities, which can be used to analyze trends in space occu- detectors required of the system can be mounted above pancy and to support planning and financial decisions. each parking space and the full/empty signals above each space are visible from a distance. Implementation Actions 9. To date, most by-space availability systems use ultrasonic detectors to determine if an individual space is occupied. 1. Prepare analysis to support the investment in a by-space Other possible technologies include infrared, inductive guidance system, considering improved customer service loops, and machine vision, but because of the costs and and improved space occupancy. accuracy of these technologies, they are predominantly 2. In cooperation with information technology (IT) and park- used to count moving vehicles or detect the presence of a ing operations staff, prepare functional plans and specifi- vehicle stopped for a short period of time (such as at an cations identifying requirements for compatibility with entry or exit gate arm). existing IT systems (such as the parking revenue control system), and locations and characteristics of key compo- nents (i.e., individual detectors/indicators, display signs Implementation Costs inside and outside the facility, additional sensors). By-space guidance system costs typically consist of costs 3. Prepare designs and select contractor for installation. for individual space monitors, small displays for aisles and 4. Install detectors with minimal disruption to existing park- zones, larger displays for levels or for the parking structure ing operations (i.e., close only a portion of an existing entrance, conduit for data transmission connecting the indi- facility at one time during a retrofit). vidual detectors, and computing equipment to process the 5. Assure that detectors/indicators function properly and reliably, and are well maintained. input from the detectors and provide appropriate outputs to the guide signs. Key Considerations Costs vary depending on whether the system is installed as part of the construction of a new garage or installed in an Those identified by airport operators include existing garage. One airport operator that installed the system 1. If installing the system in an existing parking facility, in an existing garage reported a cost-per-space of approxi- develop an installation plan that minimizes disruption to mately $1,100. Of this cost, approximately $700 was for the ongoing parking operations. ceiling-mounted sensors and the remainder was predomi- 2. Installing the system in an existing garage may initially be nantly for the dynamic displays. Another operator reported a less effective than a new garage installation. Repeat garage per-space installation cost of approximately $400. patrons who have established their search and use patterns may continue to follow their patterns rather than follow Ongoing O&M Costs the direction of the by-space guidance system. 3. Vendor involvement and support during the design process O&M costs are very low and predominantly consist of is critical. occasional bulb replacements and testing to confirm that sen- 4. Early on in the planning and design process, determine sors are operational. One airport operator reported an un- how to link the by-space guidance system with the park- anticipated increase in O&M costs because sensors that had ing revenue control system. been damaged by condensation needed to be replaced.

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78 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Implementation Schedule Implementation (including the actions required to obtain management approval, preparing design and specifications, and installation/testing) can require up to 4 years, depending on the time required to obtain approval. An actual installation required approximately 6 months for 2,700 parking spaces. Supporting and Complementary Strategies and Technologies in This Guidebook All value-added parking products in Category C and All other parking space availability and guidance systems in Category D. Source: Port of Portland. Figure D.6c. Individual space indicator at Portland International Airport. Source: Jacobs Consultancy. Source: Jacobs Consultancy. Figure D.6a. By-floor space counter linked to by- space detector system at Baltimore/Washington Figure D.6d. Individual space indicators at Baltimore/ International Airport. Washington International Airport. Examples of Application Airports with by-space guidance include those serving Baltimore, Jacksonville, and Portland (OR), as well as many parking structures throughout Europe. See Figures D.6a through D.6d. D.7 Managed Fills Purpose Improve customer service by assisting parking customers Source: Port of Portland. in finding available parking spaces within large surface Figure D.6b. Space availability displays at Portland parking lots and reducing patron waiting time for shuttle International Airport. buses.

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Category D: Parking Space Availability and Guidance Systems 79 Use by Customers 2. Development costs. Implementing the system in an exist- ing lot may require relocation of shuttle bus stops and, if As customers enter the parking lot, parking operations staff the shuttle bus route or equipment is modified, upgrade or dynamic signs located at the entrance direct them to a of the bus lane pavement. defined area within the parking lot where spaces are available. 3. During periods when the facility is very full, it may be dif- Once parked, patrons board a shuttle bus, which is waiting at ficult to identify an area within the parking facility that has a stop within the defined area. The shuttle bus then travels a high concentration of available parking spaces. directly to the terminal building (the shuttle may operate on 4. It may be easier to introduce this service at airports where a demand or may operate on a schedule). When customers parking management agreement is in place than at airports return from their trips, a shuttle bus picks them up at the ter- where the parking is self-operated or where parking conces- minal and proceeds to the parking lot. Within the lot, the shut- sion agreements are in place. Parking management agree- tle bus may follow a predefined route (stopping only at stops requested by customers onboard) or may stop at each onboard ments typically allow the introduction of new products and patron's vehicle. services, and it is relatively easy for a parking management company to add staff to meet the needs of the service. Airport operators that operate their own parking facil- Benefits ities may be reluctant to add staff to meet the needs of the Benefits reported by airport operators include service if it would be difficult to later reduce staff if the service is eliminated. Improved customer service because customers are directed At airports where parking concession agreements are in to available parking spaces. place, the parking operator may be unwilling to imple- Reduced shuttle bus travel time from the lot to the termi- ment the service without a reconsideration of the conces- nal because the bus operates nonstop en route to the ter- sion fee, since the parking operator would incur additional minal (shuttle buses may still need to travel the complete expense with no guarantee of additional revenue. route when transporting customers back to their vehicles). 5. If variable message signs are used, the parking operator Improved parking staff image as a result of the potential for should be aware of the potential for low-visibility condi- one-on-one contact between customers and parking oper- tions, such as fog. ations staff, which reduces confusion about the service. Reduced vehicle miles traveled, and associated vehicle emis- sions from customers circulating through the parking lot Implementation Costs looking for an available space. Increased occupancy levels in parking facilities because Implementation costs will vary depending on the facility used parking operations staff can completely fill a portion of the for the service and the extent of improvements required to parking facility. accommodate the service. One operator reported that it would cost approximately $300,000 for pavement improvements to an 8,000-space surface lot to accommodate the service. Implementation Actions 1. Determine which facilities, if any, would realize cus- Ongoing O&M Costs tomer service and operational benefits from a managed- fill operation. Incremental O&M costs associated with the service primar- 2. Identify likely staffing and equipment needs to implement ily consist of additional shuttle bus operating costs and the the service. costs of staff required to direct customers to available spaces. 3. Analyze the potential benefits of the service and the capital One operator estimated that the service would incur addi- and incremental operating costs that would be incurred. tional annual operating costs of approximately $600,000 4. Develop busing schedule and plan, and methods for com- ($350,000 for shuttle buses and $250,000 for staff). municating between bus drivers/dispatcher and atten- dants directing incoming motorists to the defined areas. Implementation Schedule Key Considerations From the time the actions required to obtain management approval are initiated to opening day of the program, it can Those identified by airport operators include take approximately 1 year, but the schedule is highly variable 1. Operating costs. Operating the shuttle buses and provid- depending on the time required to receive approval and the ing additional staff to direct patrons costs more than tra- extent of parking lot improvements that may be required to ditional self-park operations. accommodate the service.

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80 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Source: Sacramento International Airport. Figure D.7. Paths of shuttle buses picking up and dropping off customers in a managed-fill operation. Supporting and Complementary Strategies occupied spaces in each compartment to be accurately mon- and Technologies in This Guidebook itored. Signals located at the entry indicate whether or not there are empty spaces in the compartment. All other parking space availability and guidance systems in Category D, At Frankfurt Airport, motorists enter a parking facility and Marketing (F.8), and drive along a one-way road that passes the entrance to each Parking Facility Operation Options (H.1). compartment on a level, and exit onto another one-way road. Red/green traffic control signals, which are located on islands opposite the entry to each compartment, indicate if a com- Examples of Application partment contains empty spaces. This strategy has been implemented at the airports serving Customers wishing to enter a compartment insert their Atlanta, Fort Myers, and Sacramento (see Figure D.7). tickets into a ticket reader located on the same island as the signals, opposite the entry gate. If there are empty spaces in the compartment, the ticket reader will raise the barrier gate D.8 Parking Compartments and allow vehicles to enter. If the compartment is full, the Purpose ticket will not be accepted and access will be denied. The ticket reader stamps the compartment number and time on the Improve customer service by making it easier and quicker accepted ticket. This information allows staff to help customers for customers to find empty parking spaces, thereby reducing locate their vehicles. Upon exiting the parking compartment, vehicle emissions/vehicle miles traveled. Improve parking the customer again inserts the ticket into a reader to activate facility operations and occupancy by continuously monitor- the exit gate. ing space occupancies by sector. Benefits Use by Customers Benefits reported by airport operators include Lights or signals located at the entry to each parking com- partment enable customers to easily find empty spaces. With Reduced customer time required to locate an available this strategy, a parking structure or lot is divided into a series parking space. of parking compartments, each containing about 75 to 100 Reduced vehicle miles traveled, and associated vehicle emis- spaces. Each compartment is surrounded by walls or barriers sions, as a result of the reduced time spent and distance that prevent vehicles from moving between adjacent com- traveled by motorists searching for empty parking spaces. partments. Each compartment has one gate-controlled entry Reduced cost to install when compared to systems requir- and one gate-controlled exit, which allow the number of ing installation of single-space detectors and many dynamic

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Category D: Parking Space Availability and Guidance Systems 81 signs--especially in parking facilities with many parking Implementation Costs bays. The primary components--signal heads, ticket read- ers, gate arms, and loop detectors--are readily available and The costs of parking compartments include the control competitively priced. equipment--the ticket readers/gate arms and loop detectors Unlike overhead-mounted individual space detectors, can at the entry and exits, the signal heads, and the walls or barri- be implemented in surface lots. ers. The costs of control equipment are presented in Appen- Level of customer service and information is comparable dix A. The costs of the walls or barriers depend on the type of to individual space detector systems. structure and whether they were added to an existing struc- Increased revenues resulting from higher occupancies. ture or lot or were part of the original design. Potential increase in the number of parking spaces per level. With parking compartments, a parking garage can have Ongoing O&M Costs dead-end aisles as there is a reduced need for continuous circulation. Airport planners typically size parking facilities Overall reported O&M costs are low but compared to tradi- that don't include parking compartments to include a 10% tional parking facilities, many more ticket readers/gate arms allowance for circulation. If they assume a facility will have are required in order to control each parking compartment. parking compartments, planners may reduce the circula- Thus, the equipment maintenance costs are higher than those tion allowance to 5% or less. for a traditional parking facility. Ability to obtain real-time data on compartment-by- compartment use/occupancies. Implementation Schedule The implementation (including the actions required to Implementation Actions obtain management approval, preparing design and specifi- 1. Implementation of parking compartments begins with cations, and installation/testing) schedule is unknown. If an facility planning and design. Although it is possible to retro- existing parking structure can be reconfigured, the time is fit a structure or lot to provide parking compartments, the expected to be much less than convincing management to decision is best made during initial planning and design to configure a structure to allow for parking compartments. provide for the necessary one-way flows, island/signal loca- tions, and numerous ticket readers/gate arms. Supporting and Complementary Strategies 2. Other implementation actions are identical to those asso- and Technologies in This Guidebook ciated with the design, acquisition, and testing of standard ticket readers, gate arm mechanisms, loop detectors, signal All Duration-Based Parking Products in Category A, heads, and supporting differential space counters. No spe- Web-Based Reservations (F.3), and cialized equipment or advanced technology is required. Yield Management (F.4). 3. Develop a marketing program advising customers of the purpose and use of the signals and parking compartments. 4. Assure that all components are functioning properly and are well maintained. Key Considerations Those identified by airport operators include 1. Parking compartments are best suited for a parking facility with numerous parking bays. Frankfurt Airport has a long, narrow structure with the bays oriented along the narrow dimension, resulting in many parking bays on each level of the parking structure, each separated by walls. Parking compartments are not well suited for large structures with open floor plates and flexible circulation patterns. 2. Unlike a system using individual space detectors, the design Source: Jacobs Consultancy. of this system requires little vendor involvement. In fact, at Frankfurt Airport, the system uses gate arms and ticket Figure D.8a. Entry to parking compartment at reader equipment from multiple vendors or manufacturers. Frankfurt Airport.

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82 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Modified Time/Date Stamps. Customers can insert their tickets into machines that print their levels/zones on the tickets. These printers, which are modified time/date stamps (similar to time clocks), can be located near elevators or major pedestrian pathways. Automated Space Locators. Customers who have parked overnight can locate their vehicles by inserting their tickets into readers located near major pedestrian pathways. Vehi- cle locations are automatically determined by using vehicle license plate numbers (encoded into the ticket or provided by the customer) and the overnight license plate inventory. Benefits Potential benefits are reported to include Helps remind customers where they parked their vehicles. Creates good will among customers through improved customer perception of the airport. Source: Jacobs Consultancy. Increases revenue if paper space reminders are the respon- Figure D.8b. Typical parking compartment sibility of a concessionaire. configuration at Frankfurt Airport. Reduces number of customers asking for staff assistance to locate their vehicles. However, no before-and-after data are available indicating the change in staff time and effort, if any. Note that parking compartments are not compatible with the systems discussed in Section E.2, Credit Card In/Out. Implementation Actions Implementation actions differ according to the technology. Examples of Application Paper Space Locators. At some airports (e.g., San Fran- Frankfurt Airport (see Figures D.8a and D.8b) was the only cisco International), a concessionaire has agreed, at no charge airport identified as having parking compartments. to the airport operator, to print space locators and assure that an adequate supply of reminders is available. In return, the concessionaire retains all revenue derived from the sale of D.9 Space Locators advertising printed on the reverse side of the space reminders. Accordingly, the implementation actions are Purpose 1. Issue a Request for Information to determine if a local Improve customer service by helping customers remember advertising company or other businesses are interested in where they parked their cars. To a lesser extent, reduce staff a potential space locator concession. time and costs spent helping customers locate their vehicles. 2. Issue bid invitations if there appears to be sufficient inter- est, or award a sole-source concession. Use by Customers 3. Award and monitor contract. Using one of several technologies, customers are provided Modified Time/Date Stamps. If a suitable location is avail- with information to help them remember where they parked able for installation of the equipment (e.g., at or near the ele- their vehicles. These technologies or methods are vator cores), this equipment can be installed by airport staff or an outside vendor. These machines are standard time/date Paper Space Locators. Customers can take free space loca- stamps modified to print the level number/zone indicator. tors or reminders from dispensers located along major Accordingly, implementation actions are pathways. These space locators are ticket-sized paper slips showing the level/zone where the vehicle is parked and that 1. Determine if a suitable enclosure exists at or near the ele- contain advertising messages on the reverse side. vator cores or other locations that offer weather protection.

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Category D: Parking Space Availability and Guidance Systems 83 2. Order/purchase equipment from vendors. At Miami Inter- Ongoing O&M Costs national Airport, the equipment used was modified Sim- plex 100 time/date stamps. At San Francisco International Airport, the concessionaire 3. Determine who will maintain the time/date stamps (repair provides the space locators and dispensers. The airport park- the machines, change ribbons, etc.). At Miami Inter- ing management contractor is responsible for placing space national, janitorial staff change the ribbons and Simplex locators in the correct dispensers and assuring that the dis- repairs the equipment when needed. pensers are full. The ongoing costs for maintaining the time/ date stamps at Miami International Airport were reported to Automated Space Locators. This system requires that be about $100 per unit when repairs were required. It was (1) the customers have parked overnight and taken their noted that the vendor would not enter into a maintenance con- tickets with them (or know their license plate numbers), tract with the airport operator because the time/date stamps (2) a license plate recognition system is used to encode license are exposed to inclement weather. The O&M costs for auto- plate numbers on tickets, and (3) an overnight license plate mated space locators are generally considered part of the total inventory is conducted daily. The automated space locator parking revenue control system O&M costs. A separate break- uses the overnight license plate inventory file to find where down of the costs of this equipment was not available. the vehicle is parked. This application is best suited for parking operations where Implementation Schedule customers are encouraged to take their tickets with them after they park (e.g., pay-on-foot revenue control systems). At It is estimated that the total time to implement (including Boston's Logan International Airport, an automated space obtaining management approval) may be 6 months or less for locator was installed as part of a new pay-on-foot system. the paper space locators and time/date stamps. The schedule for implementing an automated space locator is the same as This technology could be installed as an addition to an exist- that for the purchase of a pay-on-foot system. The schedule ing revenue control system. In this instance, the implementa- for a stand-alone installation would depend on the type and tion actions are identical to those required to expand or add manufacturer of parking revenue control equipment already hardware or software components to an existing system-- in place. confirm that the new components are compatible with the existing system, and test the operation before going "live" to assure that there are no unexpected effects. Supporting and Complementary Strategies and Technologies in This Guidebook Key Considerations Pay-on-Foot Systems (E.1), License Plate Recognition (E.6), Those identified by airport operators include 1. Install space locators, regardless of the technology, in vis- ible locations where customers, on their way to the termi- nal, will see them while waiting for an elevator or passing the entrance to a walkway, bridge, or tunnel. 2. Install space locators in climate-controlled locations. Time/date stamps and time clocks may prove unreliable if located in areas subjected to freezing temperatures or high humidity. Ticket readers also require enclosures that protect the components from the environment. Implementation Costs The costs of implementing a paper space locator are borne by the concessionaire. The costs of purchasing and modify- ing a time/date stamp are about $650 each. The cost of ticket readers is presented in Appendix A. Additional costs may be Source: Jacobs Consultancy. required to enable the ticket reader to communicate with the license plate inventory database, depending on the equip- Figure D.9a. Floor reminder dispenser at ment manufacturer. San Francisco International Airport.

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84 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Miami International Airport, and ticket readers linked to the license plate inventory are used at Boston's Logan Inter- national Airport. See Figures D.9a through D.9c. D.10 In-Vehicle Parking Technologies Purpose Improve customer service through improved wayfinding by integrating emerging technologies with airport informa- tion systems. Use by Customers The three emerging technologies most relevant to this strat- egy are (1) in-car global positioning system (GPS) installed by the manufacturer, (2) GPS installed by an after-market third Source: San Francisco International Airport. party, and (3) GPS-enabled cell phones. Figure D.9b. Floor reminder card from San Francisco Benefits International Airport. Benefits could potentially include Reduced chance of a poor customer experience because Branding (F.7), and customers gain information that assists them in avoiding Automated Overnight License Plate Inventory (H.3). full parking facilities. Reduced vehicle miles traveled and associated tailpipe Examples of Application emissions because patrons are less likely to have to travel between parking facilities to locate available spaces. Paper space locators are used at San Francisco Inter- Increased collected data on use of individual parking national Airport, time clocks that stamp tickets are used at facilities. This information could be used to determine parking rate decisions or establish specialized parking products. Improved communications with motorists on the airport roadway network, which could lead to marketing oppor- tunities. Implementation Actions In-vehicle parking technologies have not yet been imple- mented; however, actions would likely include 1. Determine what information to share through in-vehicle technologies. 2. Determine level of participation, if any, from communi- cations companies. 3. Determine level of participation, if any, from parking rev- enue control vendor. Source: Jacobs Consultancy. 4. Contract with communications consultant to make nec- Figure D.9c. Floor reminder stamp from Miami essary modifications to existing equipment/software and International Airport. add new equipment/software as needed.

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Category D: Parking Space Availability and Guidance Systems 85 Key Considerations ment to collect the availability information would be simi- lar to those for other parking space availability systems (see Those identified by airport operators include Section D.6). 1. The GPS navigation technology supporting this strategy is becoming more popular, for both manufacturer-installed systems and after-market systems. Implementation Schedule 2. Determine whether the parking revenue control system or Implementation time would vary depending on the readi- other airport information system has the technical capa- ness of the technology and the other considerations noted in bilities to communicate to outside data receivers. this section. 3. Determine benefit-cost of improved customer service versus implementation and O&M costs. Supporting and Complementary Strategies Implementation Costs and Technologies in This Guidebook As a future technology, implementation costs are unknown All other parking space availability and guidance systems at this time. Costs for equipment to collect the availability in Category D and information would be similar to those for other parking space IntelliDrive (E.4). availability systems (see Section D.6). Ongoing O&M Costs Examples of Application Since this strategy relies on a future technology, O&M No airport has yet integrated information systems with in- costs are unknown at this time. Ongoing O&M costs for equip- vehicle parking technologies.