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TRANSIT TCRP REPORT 71 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration Track-Related Research Volume 7: Guidelines for Guard/Restraining Rail Installation

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TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* SELECTION COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS Ann August Santee Wateree Regional Transportation Authority CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley VICE CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of MEMBERS Governments, Arlington John Bartosiewicz McDonald Transit Associates EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Michael Blaylock Jacksonville Transportation Authority MEMBERS Linda J. Bohlinger HNTB Corp. J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Raul Bravo Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Raul V. Bravo & Associates Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson John B. Catoe, Jr. Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Gregory Cook Norfolk, VA Veolia Transportation William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Terry Garcia Crews David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond StarTran Kim R. Green Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of GFI GENFARE Virginia, Charlottesville Angela Iannuzziello Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN ENTRA Consultants John Inglish Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Utah Transit Authority Randell H. Iwasaki, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Jeanne W. Krieg Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Jonathan H. McDonald Stantec Consulting Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Gary W. McNeil Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City GO Transit Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Michael P. Melaniphy Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Motor Coach Industries Frank Otero Rosa Clausell Rountree, CEOGeneral Manager, Transroute International Canada Services, Inc., PACO Technologies Pitt Meadows, BC Keith Parker Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA VIA Metropolitan Transit Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Peter Rogoff FTA C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Jeffrey Rosenberg Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Amalgamated Transit Union Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR Richard Sarles New Jersey Transit Corporation Michael Scanlon EX OFFICIO MEMBERS San Mateo County Transit District Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Beverly Scott Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT James Stem J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT United Transportation Union Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Frank Tobey George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York First Transit Matthew O. Tucker University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC North County Transit District James E. Caponiti, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Pam Ward Cynthia Douglass, Acting Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Ottumwa Transit Authority Administration, U.S.DOT Alice Wiggins-Tolbert Parsons Brinckerhoff LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC William W. Millar APTA John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Robert E. Skinner, Jr. Officials, Washington, DC TRB Rose A. McMurry, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley Ronald Medford, Acting Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, AASHTO Victor Mendez U.S.DOT FHWA Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Louis Sanders Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT APTA Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT SECRETARY Christopher W. Jenks Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, TRB U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of June 2009. *Membership as of October 2009.

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 71 Track-Related Research Volume 7: Guidelines for Guard/Restraining Rail Installation Xinggao Shu Nicholas Wilson TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY CENTER, INC. Pueblo, CO Subject Areas Public Transit Rail Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 71: VOLUME 7 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, Project D-7/Task 16 and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current ISSN 1073-4872 systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand ISBN 978-0-309-11817-0 service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve Library of Congress Control Number 2001135523 these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to intro- duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions COPYRIGHT INFORMATION to meet demands placed on it. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report published or copyrighted material used herein. 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the Administration--now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and success- any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes from CRP. research and other technical activities in response to the needs of tran- sit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, NOTICE facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research administrative practices. Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act purposes and resources of the National Research Council. of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement out- The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review lining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooper- this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions ating organizations: FTA, the National Academies, acting through the expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research orga- necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, nization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the the Transit Development Corporation, or the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- Council, the Transit Development Corporation, and the Federal Transit Administration fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or Committee defines funding levels and expected products. manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project state- ments (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide techni- cal guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research pro- grams since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- Published reports of the nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: tran- sit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other support- are available from: ing material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for Transportation Research Board workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure Business Office that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively and can be ordered through the Internet at address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 71: VOLUME 7 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs S. A. Parker, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Maria Crawford, Assistant Editor TCRP PROJECT D-7/TASK 16 PANEL Field of Engineering of Fixed Facilities Anthony Bohara, Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority, Philadelphia, PA (Chair) Steven Abramopaulos, PATH Corp., Jersey City, NJ Michael O. Brown, San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District, Oakland, CA Michael K. Couse, DMJM Harris AECOM, St. Paul, MN James Dwyer, Consultant, Wexford, PA William H. Moorhead, TRAMMCO, LLC, Smithfield, VA Jeffrey G. Mora, Consultant, Washington, DC James Nelson, Wilson, Ihrig & Associates, Inc., Oakland, CA Jerome M. Nery, RTD Fastracks, Denver, CO Terrell Williams, FTA Liaison Louis F. Sanders, American Public Transportation Association Liaison Gunars Spons, Federal Railroad Administration Liaison Elaine King, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By S. A. Parker Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report includes the results of a research task carried out under TCRP Project D-7, "Joint Rail Transit-Related Research with the Association of American Railroads/ Transportation Technology Center, Inc." The report includes comparisons of two guard rail installation philosophies and the effects of vehicle types, wheel flange angle, wheel/rail (W/R) friction coefficient, curve radius, cant deficiency, and track perturbation on flange climb derailments that have been investigated through simulations. It offers guidance that transit agencies can follow in their W/R maintenance practices for both transit rail cars and light rail vehicles. This report should be of interest to engineers involved in the design, con- struction, maintenance, and operation of rail transit systems. Over the years, a number of track-related research problem statements have been sub- mitted for consideration in the TCRP project selection process. In many instances, the research requested has been similar to research currently being performed for the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) and the freight railroads by the Transportation Technology Center, Inc. (TTCI), Pueblo, Colorado, a subsidiary of the Association of American Rail- roads (AAR). Transit track, signal, and rail vehicle experts reviewed the research being conducted by TTCI. Based on this effort, a number of research topics were identified where TCRP funding could be used to take advantage of research currently being per- formed at the TTCI for the benefit of the transit industry. A final report on one of these efforts--Guidelines for Guard/Restraining Rail Installation--is presented in this publication. A railroad train running along a track is one of the most complex dynamic systems in engineering due to the presence of many nonlinear components. Wheel and rail geometries have a significant effect on vehicle dynamic performance and operating safety. The W/R interaction in transit operations has its own special characteristics. Transit systems have adopted different W/R profile standards for different reasons. Older systems with long his- tories have W/R profile standards that were established many years ago. Newer systems have generally selected W/R profiles based on an increased understanding of W/R interaction in recent years. Transit systems are typically operated in dense urban areas, which frequently results in systems that contain a large number of curves with small radii that can increase W/R wear and increase the potential for flange climb derailments. Transit systems also operate a wide range of vehicle types, such as those used in commuter rail, light rail, and rapid transit ser- vices, with a wide range of suspension designs and performance characteristics. Increasing operating speed and the introduction of new vehicle designs have posed an even greater challenge for transit systems to maintain and improve W/R interaction.

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Under TCRP Project D-7 Task 16, TTCI was asked to compare the effects of two guard rail installation philosophies on vehicle performance and to develop guidelines for the application of guard/restraining rails based on vehicle type, track geometry, and operations conditions. Simulations show that Philosophy I (shared contact between the high-rail flange and the guard rail on the low-rail wheel) leads to better vehicle dynamic performance than Philosophy II (no high-rail flange contact with the guard rail contact on the low-rail wheel) in terms of lower lateral forces on rails, lower vehicle rolling resistance, and lower leading axle wear. The effects of vehicle types, wheel flange angle, W/R friction coefficient, curve radius, cant deficiency, and track perturbations on flange climb derailments have also been inves- tigated through simulations. From this study, TTCI developed guidelines for guard/ restraining rail installation in terms of vehicle type and track geometry.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Philosophy I 3 1.2 Philosophy II 5 Chapter 2 Literature Review 6 Chapter 3 Comparisons of Two Guard Rail Installation Philosophies 6 3.1 Transit Rail Cars (Type 1) 8 3.2 Light Rail Vehicles (Type 1) 12 Chapter 4 Transit Vehicle Flange Climb Derailment Simulation 12 4.1 Simulation Cases 12 4.2 Transit Rail Cars 19 4.3 Light Rail Vehicles 22 4.4 Summary of Flange Climb Derailment Simulations 24 Chapter 5 Conclusions 26 References