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Index Acid deposition, 3,11, 33, 46, 59, 77, 131-144, 185-186 biological damage, 136-137 chemical processes, 131-132, 133-141 (passim), 185 economic factors, buildings, 141-142, 185 forests, 136, 138-141, 143, 185-186 fossil fuels, 132,133 greenhouse effect, 141 historical perspectives, 132-133, 136-142, 143 nitrogen and nitrogen oxides, 131, 132, 133, 141, 185 policy, 142, 170 soils, 134-135, 136, 140, 141, 143 Adirondack Mountains, 140 Africa, 8, 29, 78, 132, 135, 150, 151, 174 deforestation, 117, 119,124 population, 52 see also specific countries Agricultural University in the Netherlands, 84 Agriculture, 2, 79-82, 186 deforestation, 56-57,116, 118-120, 130, 174 fertilizers, 57, 66, 79, 82, 84, 119 genetics, 11,125,128, 152-153 187 geologic conditions, 29 greenhouse effect, 76, 82-89,153,182 historical perspectives, 56-57, 79, 88 irrigation, 79, 80, 85-88 ozone layer depletion, 113-114 pesticides, 57, 79, 82 plant species extinction, 125 production and productivity, 52, 78-89 sea level inundation, 93 seasonal variation, 83, 87, 88-89, 153 Air pollution, 9 automobiles, 49-50, 142 emission controls, 53, 142-143, 156, 177-178 industrial emissions, 33,142-143, 156, 177-178 international agreements, general, 155-156, 177-178 Montreal Protocol, 9, 66, 106, 114-115, 149, 171, 177, 186 policy issues, 177-178 research support, 156, 177-178 volcanic dust, 16-17, 29,112 see also Acid deposition; Greenhouse effect; Ozone layer; Trace gases; and specific pollutants

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188 Alan Shawn Feinstein World Hunger Program, 80, 89 Amazon River, 67, 118, 119, 120-121, 124 American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2 Andes, 128 Angola, 117 Antarctica, 91-92 geologic record, 24-25 ozone hole, 4, 59,103-104, 106, 107-111, 112, 174, 186 vortex, 109,110, 111-112 Appalachians, 138, 140 Arctic, 109,111-112, 183 Greenland, 24-25, 87-88 tundra, 42 Ardekani, Siamak, 55 Asbestos, 57 Asia, 117,119, 135 see also specific countries Atmospheric Impact Research Group, 81 Atmospheric processes, 32-37,174 chemical, 18, 21,104-113,131-132, 133-141 (passing, 185; circulation, 22-23, 26, 27-30, 36-38, 69-73, 83-86, 109, 110, 111-112, 113 dust, 25, 29, 32 marine interactions, 37-40, 45, 68, 73, 114 models, 18, 22-23, 27-30, 36-37, 39, 67, 68-74, 83-87, 108, 122, 129, 143, 181-182, 186 moisture, 23, 29, 33, 42, 64, 109, 110, 112, 133-134 ocean interactions, 37~0, 45, 114 polar vortex, 109, 110, 111-112 temperature, 26, 28, 29, 32-33, 34, 35, 37, 104, 109-112 (passim); see also Greenhouse effect see also Air pollution; Climate and weather; Clouds; Ozone layer; Trace gases Australia, 46, 110 Ausubel, Jesse, 55 Automobiles, 49-50, 142 Bangladesh, 97, 98-99,121 Barrier islands, 96,100-101 Basel Convention, 149-150 Bay of Bengal, 121 Beaches, 96 INDEX Biological processes acid deposition, effects, 136-137 biogeochemical cycles, 18, 21, 26-27, 31, 33, 35, 38-39, 40=s2, 43 evapotranspiration, 87, 121 models, 18, 41, 73 photosynthesis, 21, 26-27, 30, 33, 38-39, 85 plankton, 26-27, 38, 40, 114 see also Diseases and disorders; Extinction, species Biomass, 42 Biotechnology, 125,128, 152-153 Bolivia, 117 Borneo, 124 Brahmaputra River, 121 Brazil, 46, 67,117-118, 119,120, 121, 124 Brazilian National Institute for Amazonian Research, 117-118 Bretherton, Francis, 18-19 British Meteorological Survey, 103 Broadus, James, 97 Bromine, 107, 109 Brown University, 80, 89 Brundtland Commission, see World Commission on Environment and Development Brundtland, Gro Harlem, 7,115, 147-157 Buildings, 141-142, 185 Bush, George, 10,169-186 Canada, 28, 59,129,132,135,136, 137-138, 174, 185, 186 Cancer, 57,113-114, 125 Carbon dioxide, 3, 9, 36, 75,156,181 cycling, 33, 35, 38-39, 40~2, 43 fossil fuel releases, 33, 38, 39, 40, 42, 53, 64-65, 75, 116, 121, 154 ice age processes, 24, 25, 26-27, 35, 39, 43, 129 industrialized countries, 52, 53, 54, 64-65, 156 marine processes, 3~39 plant growth and, 84-85, 121-123, 126 see also Greenhouse effect Carter, Timothy, 83-84 Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, 121 Chemical processes, 17 acid deposition, 131-132,133-141 (passim), 185

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INDEX atmospheric, 18, 21, 10~113, 131-132, 133-141 (passim), 185; see also Trace gases biogeochemical cycles, 18, 21, 2~27, 31, 33, 38-39, 41 marine sediment cores, 25 ozone layer, 104 113 Chen, Robert, 80 China, 120, 132 Chlorine, 106, 108,109-110,112,113 Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 3, 9, 33, 57, 66, 69, 10~107, 109, 156, 174, 181, 184, 186 Montreal Protocol, 9, 66,106, 11~115, 149, 171, 177, 186 Cities, see Urban areas Clark University, 56 Clark, William C., 48 Clean Air Act of 1970, 142 Climate and weather, 17, 78-89 drought, 29, 40, 63, 88, 153, 174 extinction, species, 77,128,129,153 geological record, 21-30, 71 historical adaptations, 87-88 ice ages, 24-28, 29, 35, 39, 43, 71, 91, 129 marine processes, 18, 3700, 45, 68, 73 models, general circulation, 22-23, 27-30, 36-37, 6~74, 83-86, 129 models, other, 18, 39, 67, 68-69, 87, 108, 122, 143, 181-182, 186 Pangaea, 21-24 policy issues, 180-183 storms, 71, 93, 99,182 see also Acid deposition; Atmospheric processes; Greenhouse effect; Hydrology; Precipitation (meteorolo~v); Seasonal variation 189 Cooperative Holocene Mapping Project (COHMAP), 27-29 Cole d'Ivoire, 117,124 Crosson, Pierre, 81-82, 88 Current Issues in Atmospheric Change, 68 Daily, Gretchen, 79 Dangerous substances, 57 Basel Convention, 149-150 Davis, Margaret, 128-129 Debt, developing countries, 8,151, 152 Declaration of The Hague, 155 Deltas, 93, 97-100,120 Dematerialization, 55 Demography, see Population factors Deserts and desertification, 29,153 Developing countries, 4, 5-8, 53, 59, 89, 174, 183 debt, 8,151, 152 deforestation, 5, 52, 117-125 deltas, 97, 98-99 energy 177 old technologies used, 55, 57, 58-59 policy issues, 150, 151-154,178 population, 51-52, 55, 78, 97, 118-119 sea-level increases, 93, 94-95, 97, 98-99, 102 World Bank, 8,151 World Commission on Environment and Development, 6-8, 59, 115, 149, 150 Dimethylsulfide, 27 Dioxide, 108 Diseases and disorders, 57,125,183, 186 malnourishment, 78 ultraviolet radiation, 113-114, 185 Clouds, 27, 140 Drought, 29, 40, 63, 88, 153, 174 polar stratospheric, 109,110, 112, 113 ' ' solar radiation, 32, 37, 44 45, 68 Coal, 58-59, 132, 133, 142, 143-144,177 Coastal zones, 11, 90-102 deltas, 93, 97-100 estuaries, 93-94 see also Sea level Colombia, 124 Computer simulations, see Models Congress, 96 Conservation International, 125 Consumers and consumption dematerialization, 55 energy, 4-5, 53, 58 per capita, 50 Earth as Transformed by Human Action, The (program), 56 Earth orbit, seasonal variation, 26, 28, 29 Earthquakes, 17 Earth surface, 32-33, 37, 39, 41- 45 atmospheric-marine interactions, 37~0, 45, 68, 73, 114 land, 40~3 warming, 69, 70 Earth Systems Sciences Committee, 16 Easterling, William, 81, 88 Economic factors, 4-5, 7, 72

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90 acid deposition, buildings, 141-142, 185 air pollution research support, 156 debt, 8, 151, 152 deforestation, 130-131 emission controls, 142-143, 176, 178 GNP, 53 industrialization, 19, 33, 51, 55, 56 60, 65 market forces, 87, 88, 150-151 model development, 74 policy, 149, 150-151 prices and price controls, 8, 60, 75, 151, 153 production and productivity, 9, 50, 52, 55, 78-89 sea-level increases, 100-102 standards of living, 5, 49, 50, 53, 55, 150, 154 see also Developing countries; Industrialized countries Egypt, 97, 99 Ehrlich, Anne, 79 Ehrlich, Paul, 49-50, 79, 80 El Chichon, 112 El Niho, 38, 40 Emission controls, 53, 142-143, 156, 177-178 Energy resources alternative, 10, 58-59, 119, 155-156, 177 conservation, 77 consumption, 4-5, 53, 58 deforestation, 119 efficiency, 10 and GNP, 53 policy issues, 176-177 see also Fossil fuels Environmental Protection Agency, 4, 60, 87, 96, 100, 113, 141 Error and error analysis, 19, 57 see also Uncertainty, models Erwin, Terry L., 124 Estuaries, 93-94 Ethiopia, 78 Europe, 6, 29, 46, 53, 84, 87, 94, 116, 132-133, 135, 138, 140, 151, 174, 185, 186 see also specific countries Evaporation, 44, 45, 12~121 Evapotranspiration, 87, 121 Experimental Lakes Area, 136 Extinction, species, 123-131 acid deposition, 136-137 deforestation, 46, 80, 128, 129 INDEX greenhouse effect, 77, 128, 129, 153 Pangaea, 23 Farman, Joseph, 103-104 Fearnside, Philip, 117-118 Federal Republic of Germany, 138, 140, 150 Fertilizers, 57, 66, 79, 82, 84, 119 Fish and fisheries, 136-137 Flooding, see Inundation Florida, 96 Food and Agriculture Organization, 117, 119 Food and food industry, see Agriculture Forests, 3, 11, 33, 44, 46, 11~131, 154 acid deposition, 136, 138-141, 143, 185-186 agricultural development, 56-57, 116, 118-120, 130, 174 developing countries, 5, 52, 117-125 extinction species, 46, 80, 128, 129 see Tropical forests Forum on Global Change and Our Common Future, 2, 4, 5, 67 agenda and speakers, 163-167 keynote address, 147-157 Fossil fuels, 4, 52, 58, 102 acid deposition, 132, 133 alternatives, 10, 58-59 carbon releases, 33, 38, 39, 40, 42, 53, 64-65, 75, 116, 121, 154 coal, 58-59, 132, 133, 142, 143-144, 177 natural gas, 58-59, 132 France, 25 Frosch, Robert, 59 Gallimore, Robert G., 22-23 Gallopoulos, Nicholas, 59 Gasoline, 132 prices, 8, 60 Gayoom, Maumoon Abdul, 93 General circulation models, 22-23, 27-30, 36-37, 69-74, 83, 84, 129 General Motors, 59 Genetics, 11, 125, 128, 152-153 Geologic processes, 2, 16-17, 20 biogeochemical cycles, 18, 21, 26-27, 31, 38-39, 41 climate, 21-30, 71 extinction, 23 ice age, 24-28, 29, 35, 39, 43, 71, 91, 129

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INDEX ozone layer formation, 21 Pangaea, 21-24 volcanoes, 1~17, 24, 29,112 see also Glaciology Germany, see Federal Republic of Germany Gibbons, John H., 53 Glaciology, 17, 40,182 ice ages, 24-28, 29, 35, 39, 43, 71, 91, 129 sea ice, 67, 70 subsidence and rise, 92 Gleick, Peter H., 86 Goemans, Tom, 102 Government role, 8,10 Gradwohl, Judith, 130-131 Gray, Paul, 57 Great Lakes, 72 Greenberg, Russell, 130-131 Greenhouse effect, 1, 3, 5, 9,10, 32-37, 52, 63-78, 170, 171, 174, 180-183 acid deposition and, 141 agriculture, 76, 82-89, 153, 182 extinction, species, 77,128,129,153 geology and, 25, 27-30 industrialized countries, 52, 53, 54, 64-65, 156 international policy, 153, 154, 155, 156 ozone and, 105,186 scientific issues, 180-183 Venus, 32, 64 water vapor, 44, 64 see also Sea level Greenhouse Warming: Abatement and Adaptation, 86 Greenland, 24-25, 87-88 Green Mountains, 140 Gross National Product, 53 Groundwater, 80, 93-94, 97-98,100 Haiti, 120 Halocarbons, 107 Harvard University, 20-21, 39, 48, 125 Health, see Diseases and disorders Hekstra, Gjerrit, 93 Herman, Robert, 55 Himalayas, 121, 124 Historical perspective, 18, 20, 45~8, 151 acid deposition, 132-133,143,136-142 agriculture, 56-57, 79, 88 animal product uses, 124 automobiles, 49-50 carbon dioxide releases, 75 chlorofluorocarbons, 57 19~1 climate, 17, 35, 87-88,181 deforestation, 117, 138-140 Industrial Revolution, 19, 33, 56-59, 65 monuments, 141-142, 185 population, 4, 50-51, 79 sea level, 94 vegetation, human effects on, 45-48, 56-57 wetlands, 95 Hodgkin's disease, 125 Hofmann, David J., 112 Holdren, John, 6, 50 Human factors, 1-5, 16, 45~8, 49-60, 174 animal product uses, 124 food production, 79 climate, 18, 30, 32, 68 extinction of other species, 125 political factors, 8, 10, 52, 149, 175 public opinion, 63 sea-level changes, 92-96 water cycle, 44 see also Diseases and disorders; Historical perspective; Population factors; Social factors Hydrology, 17, 18 atmospheric moisture, 23, 29, 33, 42, 64, 109, 110, 112, 133-134; see also Precipitation (meteorology) deforestation, 52 general circulation models, 22-23, 27-30, 36-37, 69-74, 83-86, 129 lakes, 29, 46, 72,100,131-132, 135-138, 174 runoff, 86, 120-121 water cycle, 43-45, 52, 57, 85-87, 120-121 see also Evaporation; Glaciology; Rivers Ice Ages, 19, 24-38, 35, 39, 43, 71, 91, 129 Iltis, Hugh, 128 India, 57,117, 119 Indonesia, 46, 117 Industrialization, 19, 33, 51, 55, 5600, 65 Industrialized countries, 5-8,150 air pollution research support, 156, 177-178 carbon dioxide emissions, 52, 53, 54, 64 65, 156 waste, 53, 55 Infrared radiation, 32, 35, 65

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192 Insecticides, see Pesticides Institute for Research on Public Policy, 59 Institute of Medicine, 10, 172 International Fund for the Atmosphere, 156 International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 84 International perspective, 6, 8, 60, 147-157, 172, 174-186 air pollution control, general, 15~165, 177-178 Basel Convention, 149-150 Declaration of The Hague, 155 Montreal Protocol, 9, 66, 106, 114-115, 149, 171, 177, 186 see also Developing countries; Industrialized countries; United Nations; and specific countries Inundation, 92-97, 98-99, 102, 121 Irrigation, 79, 80, 85~8 Islands, 93, 96, 100-101, 120, 125 Japan, 89, 132, 150 Kates, Robert, 89 Keeling, Charles D., 35 Keller, Andrew, 86 Konijn, Nicolaas, 84 KPMG, 102 Kutzback, John E., 22-23, 27-28 Lakes, 29, 46, 72, 100, 131-132, 135-138, 174 Land sciences, 40-43 islands, 93, 96, 100-101, 120, 125 mountains, 24, 121, 128, 138, 140 subsidence and rise, 92, 97-98, 99 tundra, 42 see also Agriculture; Coastal zones; Forests; Soil and soil science; Vegetation Latin America, 8, 132, 135 see also specific countries Law air pollution control, international, 15~156, 177-178 air pollution control, national, 53, 142-143, 177-178 Basel Convention, 149-150 Code of Hammurabi, 151 Clean Air Act, 142 Declaration of The Hague, 155 INDEX Montreal Protocol, 9, 66, 106, 114-115, 149, 171, 177, 186 regulations, 142 Leukemia, 125 Lorius, Claude, 2~26 Louisiana, 95, 96, 97 Lovejoy, Thomas, 45, 124 Lung cancer, 57 MacNeill, Jim, 59 60 Madagascar, 125 Mahlman, Jerry, 67-69, 72 Maldives, 93 Malnourishment, 78 Malthus, Thomas, 79 Manabe, Syukuro, 86 Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth, 56 Marine environments, 37~0 atmospheric interactions, 37Js0, 45, 68, 73, 114 coastal zones, 11, 77, 90-102 deltas, 93, 97-100, 120 estuaries, 93-94 islands, 93, 96, 100 101, 120, 125 models, 18, 37, 39, 68, 73 ozone layer depletion effects, 114 Mediterranean Sea, 4~46, 99 Pacific Ocean, 38, 125 photosynthesis, 21, 26-27, 30, 33, 3~39, 85 plankton, 2~27, 38, 40, 114 sea ice, 67, 70, 183 sediment cores, 25 wetlands, 93, 9~96, 101, 182 see also Sea level Mars, 64 Marsh, George Perkins, 56 Martinelli, Luis Antonio, 121 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 57, 10~106 Mathematical models, see Models Mathews, Jessica, 6 McCarthy, James, 39 McElroy, Michael, 2~21 Medicine, 125, 128 Mediterranean Sea, 45 46, 99 Meter, Mark, 91-92 Methane, 3~36, 42, 65 66, 181 Mexico, 112, 128 Miller, Roberta Balstad, 47 Milliman, John, 97 Mississippi River, 97 Models, 9, 47

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INDEX atmospheric and climatic, 18, 22-23, 27-30, 36-37, 39, 67, 6~74, 83-87, 108, 122, 129, 143, 181-182, 186 biogeochemical, 18, 41 earth systems science, general, 18-19 emission control economics, 143 irrigation, 8~87 marine, 18 uncertainty affecting, 6~71, 74, 83, 89, 91, 143 see also Projections Molina, Mario J., 105-107 Monoxide, 108, 109 Monsoons, 23, 29 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 9, 66, 106, 114-115, 149, 171, 177, 186 Mountains, 24,121,124,128,138, 140 Myers, Norman, 124 National Academy of Engineering, 10, 57, 172 National Academy of Sciences, 2, 10, 172 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, 140 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 16-17,18-19, 72, 73, 84, 104, 110 National Center for Atmospheric Research, 9, 38, 72 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 67, 72, 73, 86, 103-104 National Ozone Expedition, 104 National Research Council, 86, 100, 101 National Science Foundation, 47 Natural gas, 58-59, 132 Netherlands, 84, 90,102 New Hampshire, 140 New York, 131-132,140 New Zealand, 110 Nile River, 97, 99 Nitrogen and nitrogen oxides, 32, 42, 66, 186 acid deposition, 131,132,133,141, 185 automobile emissions, 50,142 ozone layer chemistry, 105,108 North America, 29, 38, 46, 53, 71, 84, 94, 96, 116, 129, 132, 133, 135, 137, 140, 142, 174, 185, 186 see also Canada; and specific states North Sea, 90 Norway, 151, 155-156 Nuclear war, 6 ]93 Nutrition, 80-81 malnourishment, 78 Oceans, see Coastal zones; Marine environments; Sea level Office of Technology Assessment, 53 Oregon State University, 73 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 150, 151 Orogenesis, 24 Our Common Future, 6-8, 59, 149, 155, 156 Ozone as greenhouse gas, 105, 186 tropical forests as sinks, 67 tropospheric, 33, 64, 66-67,105,140, 186 Ozone layer agriculture, 113-114 Antarctic hole, 4, 59,103-104, 106, 107-111, 112, 174, 186 chemistry, 104-107 depletion, 1, 11, 33, 46, 103-114,174, 184-185 formation, 21 Montreal Protocol, 9, 66, 106, 11~115, 149, 171, 177, 186 see also Chlorofluorocarbons Ozone Trends Panel, 110 Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, the Environment, and Security, 86 Pacific Ocean, 38,125 Pangaea, 21-24 Parry, Martin, 81, 83-84, 87, 88 Peru, 117,124, 128 Pesticides, 57, 79, 82 Peters, Robert, 45, 128,129 Peterson, Dean F., 86 Philippines, 125 Photosynthesis, 21, 2~27, 30, 33, 3~39, 85 Physical processes deltas, 97, 120 erosion, 93, 97,120-121 evaporation, 44, 45, 120-121 ozone sinks, 67 subsidence, 92, 97-98, 99 Plankton, 26-27, 38, 40,114 Plotkin, Mark 125 Polar zones, see Antarctica; Arctic Policy issues, 8-9, 32,147-157,166, 169-186

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94 acid deposition, 142,170 agricultural, 88 deforestation, 119, 130-131 developing countries, 150,151-154, 178 emission control, 53, 142-143,156, 176-177, 177-178 energy, 176-177 greenhouse effect, 74, 76,180-183 model use, 74 research 176-186 (passim) Political factors, 8, 10, 52, 149, 175 Population factors, 4, 8, 9, 46, 50-53, 59, 77 agriculture, 29 carrying capacity, 78-89 deforestation, 118-119 developing countries, 51-52, 55, 78, 97, 118-119 genetic diversity, 11,125,128 refugees, 4, 94-95, 154, 183 sea level changes, 92-96 suburban migration, 55 trace gas increases, 65 see also Extinction, species; Urban areas Potential Effects of Global Climate Change on the United States, 96 Precipitation (meteorology), 45, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 83, 86-87, 128 see also Acid deposition; Rain Prices and price controls commodity, 151 environmental damage included in, 60 food, 153 gasoline, 8, 60 fossil fuels, 75 Production and productivity, 9, 50 agricultural, 52, 78-89 dematerialization, 55 grain, 81, 84 Projections, 59 60,171 automobiles, 49 chlorofluorocarbons, 9 climate, 6~72, 91-92, 93 deforestation, 118, 124 extinction, 124 ozone depletion, 113 population, 51 sea level, 91-92, 93, 96, 98, 99-100, 101 uncertainty, models, 6~71, 74, 83, 89, 91, 143 Public opinion, 63 INDEX Quality of life, see Standards of living Radiation budget, 32-33, 34, 44 45 Rain, 183 geologic record, monsoons, 23, 29 monsoons, 23, 29 runoff, 86, 12~121 tropical forests, 117,120-121 see also Acid deposition Refugees, 4, 94-95,154,183 Regulations, 142 Remote sensing, 39-40,111,171 Repetto, Robert, 119 Research, 176-186 (passim) Resources for the Future, 81-82, 93, 122-123 Richey, Jeffrey, 121 Rivers acid rain, 46 Amazon, 67,118,119,120-121, 124 Brahmaputra, 121 deltas, 93, 97-100,120 estuaries, 93-94 Mississippi 97 Nile, 97, 99 Rockefeller University, 55 Rocky Mountains, 24 Rosenberg, Norman, 72, 81~3 Rosenzweig, Cynthia, 89 Rowland, F. Sherwood, 10~107, 115 Ruckelshaus, William, 4, 5, 60 Salati, Eneas, 1118, 20,121 Salinity, 80, 93-94,183 Satellites, 42,104,111, 117,118,171 Schindler, David W., 135, 136-137 Schneider, Stephen H., 9, 72, 74, 76, 77, 83 Schulze, Ernst-Detlef, 140-141 Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 35 Sea level, 3,10-11, 67, 70,154,171,182 coastal zones, 11, 77, 9~102 earth orbit variation, 26 historic changes, 46 Seasonal variation crops, 83, 87, 88-89,153 earth orbit, 25, 28, 29 greenhouse effect, 67, 70, 83, 87, 8~89, 183 ozone layer, 109,111-112 vegetation and, 43 Sedjo, Roger A., 122-123 Sigma Xi, 2 Skin cancer, 113

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INDEX Smith, Angus, 131 Smithsonian Institution, 2, 45, 124, 130 Social factors, 7, 9, 32, 52, 72, 80, 149 institutional, 47, 180 sea level increases, 100-101 standards of living, 5, 49, 50, 53, 55, 150, 154 see also Economic factors; Political factors; Population; Urban areas Soils and soil science, 3 acid deposition, 134-135,136, 140, 141, 143 carbon cycle, 42 erosion, 93, 97, 120-121 moisture, 85 Solar radiation, 26, 29, 32, 37, 42, 186 clouds and, 32, 37, 44 45, 68 forest absorption, 121 infrared, 32, 35, 65 ozone layer chemistry, 105,109, 112-113 radiation budget, 32-33, 34, 44 45 seasonal, 28 sunspots, 112-113 see also Ultraviolet radiation Solomon, Susan, 104,107, 112 South America, see Latin America; and specific countries Southern Oscillation, 38 Soviet Union, 6, 84, 132,151 Soybeans, 113-114 Space Science and Engineering Center, 18-19 Spatial dimension, 16, 74 Sri Lanka, 124 Standards of living, 5, 49, 50, 53, 55, 150, 154 Stanford University, 42~3, 79 Statutes, see Law Storms, 71, 93, 99,182 Stratosphere, 69 clouds, 109,110,112, 113 see also Ozone layer Subsidence, 92, 97-98, 99 Suburbs, 55 Sudan, 78 Sulfur oxides, 27,112, 131, 132, 133, 137-138, 140, 142, 143, 144, 185 Sweden, 112 Systems theory, general, 16-19, 31-48 Taxes, 119 Technology, 148 -195 biotechnology, 125,128, 152-153 de m a teria liz a ti on, 5 3, 55 developing countries, 55 forest preservation, 130 pollution and, 53 research, 176-186 (passim) sea-level inundation prevention, 100, 101-102 unanticipated consequences, 57 Technology and Environment, 57 Temperature processes atmospheric, 26, 28, 29, 32-33, 34, 35, 37,104, 109-112 (passim) biogeochemical factors, 27, 38-39 earth orbit and seasons, 25, 28, 29 extinction, species, 128,129 land, 44, 45 marine, 37, 38, 45 ozone layer chemistry, 104,109-112 (passim) tropical forests, 42, 120 see also Greenhouse effect; Seasonal variation Temporal dimension, 17 models, 18,-28-30, 89 see Geology; Historical perspective; Projections Thailand, 130 Thomas, William L., 56 Titus, James, 94, 95-96, 97 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, 104, 108 Trace gases, 3, 9, 33, 35-36, 42, 41 45, 64-67, 108, 181 see also specific gases Trenberth, Kevin, 38 Tropical forests, 2, 9, 42, 77, 116-131, 171, 174, 183-184 Brazil, 46, 67,117-118,119, 120, 121, 124 extinction species, 46, 80, 128 ozone sinks, 67 Tropical regions, 38, 71,114, 125 Troposphere, ozone, 33, 64, 6~67, 105, 140, 186 Tundra, 42 Turner II, B. L., 56 Ultraviolet radiation, 1, 21, 106, 112, 185 human effects, 113-114, 185 see also Ozone layer Uncertainty, models, 68 71, 74, 83, 89, 91, 143

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96 United Kingdom, 73, 81, 84,103,132, 133 United Nations, 4, 7, 52, 84, 87, 93, 117, 119, 152 see also World Commission on Environment and Development University of Alberta, 135 University of Bayreuth, 140-141 University of Birmingham, 81, 84 University of California, 6, 50,105-106 University of Minnesota, 129 University of Sao Paula, 118,121 University of Texas, 55 University of Washington, 121 University of Wisconsin, 18-19, 22,128 University of Wyoming, 112 Urban areas, 56 acid deposition and buildings, 141-142, 185 emission controls, 53, 142 sea level rise, 100 suburban migration, 55 water subsystem, 44 Vegetation, 42-43 carbon dioxide and, 84~5, 121-123, 126 evapotranspiration, 87, 121 extinction, effects, 128,129 genetics, 11,125,128, 152-153 greenhouse effect, 71 historic human effects on, 45~8, 56-57 ozone depletion effects, 113-114 photosynthesis, 21, 26-27, 30, 33, 38-39, 85 see also Agriculture; Forests; Tropical forests Venus, 32, 64 Vermont, 140 Vernadsky, W. I., 56 Victoria, Reynaldo Luiz, 121 Vitousek, Peter, 42~3, 79 Volcanoes, 16-17 INDEX ice age processes, 24, 29 ozone layer, 112 Waste and waste management, 53, 55 Basel Convention, 149-150 as fuel, 58 Water pollution agricultural, 57, 66, 79, 82, 84,119 wetlands and, 95 salinity, 80, 9~94, 183 see also Acid deposition Water supply, 80, 85-87 irrigation, 79, 80, 85-88 Water systems, see Coastal zones; Hydrology; Lakes; Marine environments; Precipitation (meteorology); Rivers Weather, see Climate and weather Wetherald, Richard, 86 Wetlands, 93, 95-96,101,182 see also Deltas Wildlife, 3 acid deposition, 136-137 conservation, 130 fish and fisheries, 136-137 historic human effects on, 45-48 ozone depletion effects, 114 see also Extinction, species Wilson, Edward O., 125 Winds, 113,128, 177 Woods Hole Oceanogrpahic Institution, 97, 99 World Bank, 8,151 World Commission on Environment and Development, 6-8, 59, 115, 149, 150 World Resources Institute, 6, 54,119 World War II, 60; 75 World Watch Institute, 79 World Wildlife Fund, 45, 128 Zabinski, Catherine, 128-129 Zaire, 117