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12 TABLE 1 TABLE 4 WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING BEST DESCRIBES PLEASE ESTIMATE THE NUMBER OF VEHICLES IN YOUR YOUR POSITION? FLEET WITH GPS OR AVL Job Title/Role Frequency Vehicle n Average Range School Bus Driver (n = 89) Number with GPS 152 340 030,000 Class A commercial drivers í license (CDL) 10 Number with AVL 125 129 015,000 Class B CDL 73 Class C CDL 4 No CDL/unspecified 2 Fleet manager 85 categorized by two independent raters. If there was a discrep- Instructor/trainer 34 State agency employee 32 ancy between the two raters, the item was discussed until an Other 27 agreement was reached. In some cases, respondents listed sev- Transportation specialist 23 eral responses that were tallied separately under the appropriate Maintenance supervisor 15 Mechanic/technician 14 category. When a respondent replied that they had nothing to Routing specialist/dispatcher 13 say for a particular question, it was tallied as "no suggestion." State director of pupil transportation services 13 If an item was left blank, no tally was made; however, total Contractor management 7 School superintendent 5 sample size is noted in each of the following tables so one can Bus monitor/aid 5 determine the number of non-responses from participants. Transportation researcher 3 Finally, if a response was not understood, appeared to apply Special interest group representative 2 only to their specific school system, or otherwise indicated that Federal agency employee 0 School bus manufacturer 0 the respondent did not understand the question, it was catego- Total 367 rized as "other." Table 9 provides the responses for the question: "What do OVERALL SAFETY ISSUES (COMPARISONS you consider to be the most important safety issue(s) in BETWEEN DRIVERS AND NON-DRIVERS) school bus transportation?" Other motorists and their driving behaviors (notably illegal passing) was the most frequently The overall safety issues were explored to determine differ- cited safety issue, followed closely by passenger behavior on ences between school bus drivers and non-drivers (e.g., fleet the bus. Other frequently cited safety issues included passen- managers, etc.). Non-drivers believe turnover is more of a gers as pedestrians and driver issues (e.g., lack of skill). safety issue than do drivers. One other item that appears sig- nificant was survey item 21: "Weather conditions when school Table 10 shows the frequencies of categorized responses is not delayed/cancelled." School bus drivers and non-drivers for the question: "What are the barriers to these issues?" The indicated that drivers believe weather conditions are some- most frequently cited responses included funding, lack of sup- what more of a safety issue than do non-drivers. port from administration/parents, and lack of law enforcement. Table 11 presents the responses for the question: "Do you OVERALL SAFETY ISSUES (OPEN-ENDED) have any recommendations/suggestions for how these issues In addition to the overall safety issue ratings, respondents were should be addressed in the future?" Many respondents believe asked several open-ended questions regarding overall safety that stronger law enforcement and driver training were meth- issues in school bus transportation. Open-ended responses were ods for addressing safety issues. TABLE 5 TABLE 2 DRIVER AND MONITOR ISSUES HOW MANY YEARS OF EXPERIENCE DO YOU HAVE IN THE AREA OF SCHOOL BUS TRANSPORTATION? n Average Overall Rank n Response Average Range Driver turnover 186 3.9 19 Driver cell phone use 192 3.8 28 Years of experience 193 17 140 Driver physical health 189 3.5 33 Driver mental health 190 3.4 36 TABLE 3 Driver fatigue 190 3.2 43 IF YOU WORK WITHIN A SCHOOL SYSTEM, Bus monitor/attendant physical health 166 3.1 44 APPROXIMATELY HOW LARGE IS THE SYSTEM BASED ON THE TOTAL NUMBER OF PUPILS? Bus monitor/attendant turnover 165 3.1 45 Bus monitor/attendant mental health 164 3.0 46 n Response Average Range Driver safety-belt use 191 2.9 48 Number of pupils 149 20,267 37487,000 Bus monitor/attendant safety-belt use 161 2.5 51