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22 ways" was ranked as 29, and "lack of an adequate waiting area owing to the multiple methods of recruitment and the "snow- for passengers at bus stops" was 30. Also, some drivers indi- balling" referral tactic, it was impossible to calculate the exact cated there were issues with bus stop placement, which made response rate. Several steps may improve the response in the them difficult to see, including placement near curves and on future, including providing a longer time frame to build net- hilly terrain. works and distribute the survey (this project, from inception to completion, was to be completed in less than a year), provid- ing incentives for survey completion, and perhaps even short- Security ening the survey. These suggestions may also reduce selection bias, as it is assumed that only the most conscientious or con- A majority of respondents indicated either giving or receiving cerned individuals took the time to respond to the survey. With security awareness training in the past year. When asked what incentives, for example, perhaps a wider variety of individuals drivers could do to ensure that their buses are safe in terms of would have completed the survey. security, most responses had to do with performing pre- and post-trip inspections, keeping buses locked in a secure area, The challenge of the survey was to gather as much infor- and increasing vigilance for suspicious or unusual activities, mation regarding school bus safety as possible, without mak- packages, etc. A smaller number of respondents believe that ing the survey too long for an acceptable completion time. increased and/or improved training in security issues is war- Although this survey was successful in exploring the major ranted. Other survey respondents noted concerns regarding issues, barriers, and solutions to safety problems, future terrorism, as well as increased violence among students both research might focus on particular issues to explore them in on the bus and while at bus stops. more detail. Another limitation was the brevity of questions regarding the demographics of the participants and their school LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE WORK systems. By having more of this information available, it would provide greater context for individuals' responses. One of the major limitations of this research was the relatively Finally, given that a majority of the surveys were completed low response. Extensive efforts were made to distribute the online and participants were guaranteed anonymity, it was survey widely through listservs, individual e-mails, flyers at a impossible to identify participants to be able to probe based major school bus safety conference, flyers at work, telephone on their responses or otherwise ask for clarification. This calls, and advertisements/announcements in trade publica- too is a difficult issue because guaranteeing anonymity/ tions. The survey was offered in electronic, paper, and online confidentiality may be necessary to obtain the most truthful formats, and those completing the paper version had the responses from participants. options of returning it by mail or fax. In summary, this synthesis provides a basic foundation of Individuals were encouraged to voice their concerns and information regarding the safety of school bus operations that have them documented through this process, yet only 198 indi- will be useful to policymakers, administrators, trainers, fleet viduals completed the survey. Another related limitation is that managers, and safety researchers.