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8 for identification and equipment for school buses; regulatory real-time capability for locating buses in any type of emer- oversight for school buses and drivers; training for students, gency, including security situations (Hann 2007). crossing guards, and student escorts; and route and bus stop selection. As mentioned earlier, 72 sources were reviewed to pre- sent a summary of available literature and knowledge about Emergency and rescue procedures are also addressed in the the safety of school bus operations. Although there are many literature. The National Association of State Directors of Pupil resources available on the Internet and in trade publications, Transportation Services created a task force that developed academic journals, etc., there is still substantial safety-relevant emergency and rescue response procedures as guidelines for information about school buses that is not documented. The school bus organizations (Tull et al. n.d.). Emphasis is placed following sections of this synthesis report detail the devel- on preplanning for emergencies, solid incident management opment, implementation, and results of a survey designed procedures, and knowledge and skill in assisting injured to address and document a wide range of safety issues in students, especially special needs students. Emergency and the field of school bus operations. rescue procedures are included in most school bus driver train- ing curriculums reviewed. SAFETY OF SCHOOL BUSES COMPARED WITH OTHER MODES Security concerns have become more dominant in the liter- ature since 2001. This is not only because of terrorist activities The National Research Council appointed the Committee on but also because of growing violence among school students School Transportation Safety to study the safety issues atten- (School Bus Stops . . . 2006; School Bus Security . . . 2007). dant to the transportation of students to and from school and Awareness by all employees of what is "normal" and immedi- school-related activities by various transportation modes. ate communication regarding unusual behaviors, packages, or The final report of the Committee is Special Report 269: The circumstances are the hallmarks of a successful security proce- Relative Risks of School Travel (Committee on School Trans- dure (School Transportation Security Awareness 2005; School portation Safety 2002). The report compares yellow school Bus Security . . . 2007). Vehicle identification and knowledge bus travel with five other modes of student transportation-- of vehicle locations are also considered important aspects of other bus; passenger vehicle (adult driver); passenger vehicle an effective security response protocol (School Transporta- (teen driver); bicycle; and walking. Data were aggregated tion Security Awareness 2005; Hann 2007; School Bus Secu- from nine years, 19911999. rity . . . 2007). The findings of the report are that during the study period, The Transportation Security Administration (Employee 25% of student trips and 28% of student miles traveled were Guide . . . n.d.) developed security awareness training for made on yellow school buses. Yet, only 4% of all student employees of school bus operations. This training provides injuries and 2% of all student deaths were associated with methods for all employees to identify unusual behaviors, school buses. By comparison, passenger vehicles with a teen packages, or situations. driver made 14% of student trips and 16% of student miles trav- eled, but 51% of injuries and 55% of fatalities are associated Many school districts are installing global positioning with this mode. The report found that, in comparison with other system (GPS) technology on school buses as a means to have modes, school bus is a relatively safe mode of transportation.