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CHAPTER 17 BIBLIOGRAPHY Aehle, Yvette M. Positive Public Relations in a Single-Carrier Marketplace [Report]. American Association of Airport Executives, Washington, D.C., Jan. 1999, 59 pages. In this paper, Ms. Aehle provides a framework for addressing public relations issues faced in the single-carrier marketplace. Topics addressed include (1) common public perceptions about single carrier airports; (2) the media's role in shaping that perception, and (3) public rela- tions strategies and tactics available to airport managers that can improve the visibility of the airport in the com- munity and increase understanding about fare structure and schedules associated with single-carrier markets. Andreasen, Alan R., and Kotler, Philip. Strategic Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations [Book]. Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2003, 536 pages. This book seeks to position marketing as perhaps the most critical discipline needed for nonprofit success, and that success ultimately requires the ability to influ- ence behavior in a wide range of key target markets including clients, funders, policy makers, volunteers, the media, and the organization's own staff. There are five sections to this book structured as follows: Section 1-- Developing a Customer Orientation, Section 2--Strategic Planning and Organization, Section 3--Developing and Organizing Resources, Section 4--Designing the Marketing Mix, and Section 5--Controlling Marketing Strategies. Topics of special interest to the nonprofit sector include a lengthy discussion on generating funds and attracting human resources including staff and volunteers. Chapter 20, Marketing Evaluation, Monitoring, and Control, reviews different methods for evaluating the level of success of a particular marketing campaign or strategy. Aviation Youth Resources--Information Clearinghouse [Online]. Washington State Department of Transportation, Jan. 5, 2008 (http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/aviation/InfoClearinghouse/YouthResources.htm). Berry, Frances Stokes, and Wechsler, Barton. State Agencies' Experience with Strategic Planning: Findings from a National Survey [Journal]. Public Administration Review. March/April 1995, pp. 159168. This article provides an overview of strategic planning methods for public agencies. The findings are based on results from a national survey conducted to determine what strategic planning methods were used and how they were effec- tive. The survey found that public agencies used strategic planning to (1) clarify agency directions and goals, (2) assist in policy and budget decision making, (3) enhance client and external relations, (4) improve internal management, (5) internally reorganize, and (6) improve delivery of services. Bradford, Robert. Simplified Strategic Planning: A No-Nonsense Guide for Busy People Who Want Results Fast! [Book]. Chandler House Press, Worcester, MA, 2000, 239 pages. This book presents a streamlined methodology for developing business strategies and executable plans. In addition to details on the step-by-step methodology, templates for charting a course for companies to follow are included. 157

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158 Marketing Guidebook for Small Airports Bureau of Aviation Education and Safety; Committee, Illinois Aviation Education Advisory. A Guide for Supporting the Airport in Your Community [Report]. Illinois Department of Transportation Division of Aeronautics, 1990, 92 pages. This report provides practical assistance for the development of a community education pro- gram to support your airport. Focus is given to the importance of effective communication, steps for good pub- lic relations, and aids for planning a program in your community. Conklin, Dave. The Total Package: East Tennesseans for Airfare Competition & McGhee Tyson Airport's Incentive Program [Conference] . ACINA Marketing and Communications Conference, Pittsburg, PA, 2007. 15 pages. East Tennesseans for Airfare Competition (ETAC), a consortium of 30 businesses in the region, joined together as a grassroots effort to (1) address rising airfares at McGhee Tyson Airport and (2) find ways to attract low fare airlines to the airport. The group worked to raise awareness among individuals, small busi- nesses, and corporations about options available to them. Actions taken by the group and outcomes achieved between 2002 and 2007 are included. Dillingham, Gerald L. Commercial Aviation: Initial Small Community Air Service Development Projects Have Achieved Mixed Results [Report]. GAO, Washington, D.C., 2005, 84 pages. This report examines how the U.S. DOT has implemented the Small Community Air Service Development Program established in 2000, including goals and strategies used and results under its grants. The GAO reports that goals have varied among grantees, from adding flights and airlines to improving marketing, and the communities have also used various strategies, such as airline subsidies, hiring consultants, and marketing. The results have been mixed, with some achieving the goals they set, such as adding passenger enplanements. Other airports have failed to reach their target goals. However, the GAO encourages further evaluation as only a small percentage of the grantees had completed their programs at the time of the report. Dillingham, Gerald L. Commercial Aviation: Programs and Options for Providing Air Service to Small Communities [Report]: GAO, Washington, D.C., 2007, 50 pages. This testimony examines the status and results of the Essential Air Service (EAS) and Small Community Air Service Development (SCASD) programs as Congress considers the reauthorization of the FAA. The testimony raises concerns about the EAS program, citing the need to provide air service to communities that otherwise would not be able to sustain it. The testi- mony also raises concerns about the costs and efficiencies of the subsidies including the viability of future EAS service because the number of available small aircraft is declining. Evaluation of SCASD is on-going, but requests for these grants are declining. The testimony makes recommendations for reform to EAS and improved evaluation of SCASD that would improve effectiveness of both these programs. Eclat Consulting. Michigan Air Service: Assessment and Strategy [Report]. Michigan Department of Transportation, Bureau of Aeronautics and Freight Services, Lansing, MI, 2005. This report examines whether Michigan's residents have effective air service, what impact Northwest's restructuring is likely to have on the state's airports, and what the prospects are for service to small and mid-sized communities. Chapters 6 and 7 detail the specific attributes of the remotely located small airports and the smaller airports, respectively. Chapters 11 and 12 explain the air service tools and strategies available to the state and recommends those tools most useful to Michigan airports. Eclat Consulting. Pennsylvania Air Service: Assessment and Strategy [Report]. Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Bureau of Aviation, Harrisburg, PA, 2004, 141 pages. Chapters 4 and 5 of this report focus on the specific challenges facing air service to small airports including an explanation of the economics of airlines serving small airports. Chapter 11 details air service development principles and their application to Pennsylvania airports including community programs and tactics that have been proven successful. Chapter 12 discusses

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Bibliography 159 federal and state options for funding, especially for small airports, and Chapter 13 discusses the role Pennsylvania can play in its own air service initiatives including marketing strategies. Educator's Corner. [Online]. Federal Aviation Administration, Jan. 5, 2008. http://www.faa.gov/education/ educator_resources/educators_corner/. This webpage is part of the official FAA website. It is a resource for youth educators to use when looking for ways to introduce aviation concepts to students and a means to pro- mote community interest in aviation. The site also provides links to (1) the AOPA Pilots and Teachers Handbook (PATH) to Aviation; (2) NASA Smart Skies Air Traffic Simulator to teach distance-rate-time problems to grades 5 through 9; (3) NCAE Aviation Education Resource Matrix--a website containing aviation education information and events for all private and governmental businesses; (4) 2005 National Aviation Magnet School Survey, and (5) grade and age specific experiments and activities. Ellis, Susan J. The Volunteer Recruitment and Membership Development Book [Book]. Energize, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, 2002, 152 pages. Volunteer recruitment is one element in a broader picture of how your organization wants to function in the larger community. This guidebook focuses on how to recruit volunteers for your organization. Specific attention is given to (1) where to look for volunteers (finding fresh sources of volun- teers in your community); (2) techniques for recruitment (developing specific recruitment tools and techniques that work); (3) appealing to special target audiences; (4) alternatives to recruitment; (5) how to get members to volunteer; and (6) how to use the Internet to support your recruitment efforts including how to use your organi- zation's website as a tool to attract volunteers. Gibson, John. Marketing Small Airports in a Big Way! John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport [Conference]. ACINA Marketing and Communications Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, 2008, 37 pages. This PowerPoint pres- entation was presented at the ACINA Marketing and Communications Conference in 2008. Hamilton International Airport is located 50 minutes from downtown Toronto and 50 minutes from Niagara Falls. Airport management realized that to increase passengers, the airport needed to raise awareness in the community. Mr. Gibson presents how the airport developed a new brand and launched an extensive marketing campaign in the region. Guide to Obtaining Community Support for Your Local Airport--Public Relations Plan for Airports [Online]. AOPA, Frederick, MD. Jan. 2008. http://www.aopa.org/asn/apsup02.html. This excerpt from The Guide to Obtaining Community Support for Your Local Airport is accessible on the AOPA website. Focus is on how to develop and launch an airport public relations campaign including how to muster community involve- ment, political action, and media relations to positively influence public opinion around airport issues. Things to consider include (1) get the facts--compare the goals of the airport with those of the community; (2) under- stand public opinion--does the airport have opponents in the community on a specific airport matter and what is their view; (3) take action to improve public opinion about the airport and communicate the steps taken through different forms of media; and (4) community outreach--build public support by providing a program for local civic organizations. Hazel, Robert. Small Airports and Air Service Development [Conference]. ACINA Marketing and Communications Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, June 2005. This presentation examines challenges that small airports face when recruiting air carriers. The presentation also outlines basic air service development tools that can be used and lessons learned regarding attracting air service to small communities. Hecker, JayEtta Z. Commercial Aviation: Factors Affecting Efforts to Improve Air Service at Small Community Airports [Report]. GAO, Washington, D.C., Jan. 2003, 90 pages. Small communities experience many challenges

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160 Marketing Guidebook for Small Airports to attract and retain air service. Small populations and limited economic activity restrain passenger demand and thus makes these markets less attractive to a carrier than a larger city. The next larger cities also experi- ence challenges to provide air service at competitive prices and, if these cities are near larger metropolitan areas, diversion of passengers to the larger airport further handicaps efforts to increase air service. In this report, the GAO found that financial incentives were the most effective way to attract new air service; however, when financial incentives ended, longer term sustainability of the new service was more likely in communities that made retention of air service a top priority. Hodiak, Diane L. Fund Raising & Marketing in the One-Person Shop: Achieving Success with Limited Resources [Book]. 4th edition, Development Resource Center, Seattle, WA, 2002, 189 pages. This guidebook's primary focus is on fund raising and marketing in the non-profit sector. Strategies and techniques are offered for overcoming challenges faced by organizations with scarce human and financial resources. Specific topics covered are (1) volunteer recruitment and management; (2) networking; (3) how to create a successful web- site; (4) organizational self-assessment including SWOT analysis; (5) building a successful marketing cam- paign; and (6) cost savings (e.g., cultivating in-kind contributions). Case studies from the Ronald McDonald House, the Emergency Food Shelf, and the Mayo Clinic are included. Jarach, David. Airport Marketing: Strategies to Cope With the New Millennium Environment [Book]. Ashgate Publishing, Burlington, VT, 2005, 140 pages. This book presents two core areas of in-depth analysis of current airport management practices: aviation-related activities and non-aviation-related activities. Chapter 1 reviews the role and scope of activity of the "airport enterprise." Chapter 2 describes the air transport value chain. Chapters 3 and 4 discuss the Airport Enterprise's Strategic Business Unit (SBU) and how it has changed over time from a physical airport structure serving flying customers to a broader aviation-related SBU where best in- class players are moving from a mono-modal approach to co-evolutionary designs with other transportation solutions. Chapter 5 looks at the development of the "non-aviation-related" value proposition and the new "com- mercial airport" concept where airport infrastructures evolve into more sophisticated marketing entities that are described as "multipoint service-provider firms" resulting in a new set of potential customers. Chapter 6 describes the importance of customer loyalty in achieving sustainable growth for the "commercial airport" concept. Chapter 7 focuses on constructing an airport marketing plan using a four-phased approach including (1) assess- ment, (2) definition of goals, (3) implementation of objectives, and (4) auditing of financial results. Chapter 8 briefly discusses the impact of 9/11 on increased security measures, and Chapter 9 provides a high level comparison of U.S. airport performance (2002) with other countries (passenger movements and cargo). Kotler, Philip. According to Kotler: the World's Foremost Authority on Marketing Answers to Your Questions [Book]. AMACON, a division of American Management Association, New York, NY, 2005, 168 pages. General marketing information is presented in this book using a "frequently asked questions" structure. Using this question/answer format, Part 1 provides an overview of marketing concepts, traditional marketing techniques, and a review of new marketing trends and tools. Part 2 describes different marketing strategies including segmentation, targeting, positioning, differentiation, and innovation. Part 3 describes available marketing tools (the 4 Ps); product, price, place, and promotion. Part 4 answers questions about marketing planning includ- ing a discussion on conducting market research. Part 5 includes information about the role and structure of the marketing organization, and Part 6 offers suggestions on how to measure the effectiveness of marketing cam- paigns and efforts. Part 7 is about marketing areas of application including suggestions for small-business mar- keting, direct marketing, Internet marketing, and other special situations and approaches.

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Bibliography 161 Little, Helen. Volunteers: How to Get Them, How to Keep Them [Book]. Panacea Press, Naperville, IL, 1999, 128 pages. This manual is structured around the 12 basic needs of every volunteer, and how they impact man- agement's ability to recruit and retain volunteers for its organization. Topics of relevance include (1) recruiting volunteers, (2) managing volunteer expectations, (3) volunteer training, and (4) getting projects done on time using volunteers. McNamara, Carter. Field Guide to Nonprofit Strategic Planning and Facilitation [Book]. Authenticity Consulting, LLC, Minneapolis, MN, 2003. This guidebook focuses on nonprofit organizations and government departments embarking on a strategic plan: how to customize strategies suited to achieving specific goals and objectives. Comprehensive practical tools to conduct an internal analysis of your organization and compare results to best practices in nonprofit organizations are included. Worksheets are provided to identify and organize the most important information about all aspects of the strategic planning process. Minton, Paul A.S. Translating Vision Into Action: 8 Steps to Communicate Your Strategy [Journal]. Course and Direction. April 1999, 5 pages. This article summarizes the steps to take to complete a simplified strategic plan and references the templates and worksheets cited in the guidebook, Simplified Strategic Planning: A No Nonsense Guide for Busy People Who Want Results Fast! The assumption is that for strategic planning to be effective, organizations must not only craft a winning strategy and implementation plan, but must align the actions of the organization's people with the course and direction of the plan. The eight steps to successful strategic planning include (1) data gathering, (2) who needs to act, (3) what actions need to be taken, (4) the information they need to effectively act, (5) communication strategies, (6) delivering the message, (7) verifying that the audience understands the message, and (8) reinforcing communications periodically. Noll-Williams, Nicole. Marketing Small Airports in a Big Way [Conference]. ACINA Marketing and Com- munications Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, 2008, 23 pages. This PowerPoint presentation was delivered by Nicole Noll-Williams, Director of Regional Market Development for Capital Region International Airport, at the ACINA Marketing and Communications Conference held in June 2008. It describes how the airport, located in Lansing Michigan, developed a two-tier marketing strategy to promote utilization through (1) an enhanced multifaceted web- site and (2) broad-based community involvement through the development of a Regional Business Travel Trust. Traditional branding techniques were used including development of two complementary logos and taglines, as well as attractive and consistent design features for the website and other marketing materials (e.g., direct mail, billboards, TV ads, etc.). The website was designed to (1) appeal to business as well as leisure travelers, (2) pro- vide frequent informational updates to keep the website current, (3) highlight promotions and press releases about the airport, and (4) secure personal data. Through the Regional Business Travel Trust, key executives in the area were brought together to endorse and sign up corporations in the region to participate in the trust. The website was used to support the application process for companies and business travelers interested in participating in the trust. Lessons learned included (1) the airport was able to build on existing strengths, (2) the website devel- opment was a worthwhile investment, (3) the focus is now on a broader range of services, and (4) flying is now connected to the larger business and economic development in the region. Olislagers, Robert. Factors Vital to General Aviation: A Case for Economic Stability and Growth [Conference]. 32nd FAA Annual Forecast Conference. Washington, D.C., Mar. 16, 2007, 13 pages. The focus of this PowerPoint presentation is on key factors that influence investment at Centennial Airport including location, understanding return on investment (ROI), stabilizing airport costs, and implementing and enforcing realistic standards and con- sistent policies. The presentation concludes with the economic results that have been achieved at Centennial Airport through implementation of these key factors.

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162 Marketing Guidebook for Small Airports Rudolph, Jim. Branding Edmonton International Airport [Conference]. ACINA Marketing and Communications Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, 2008, 11 pages. This PowerPoint presentation was delivered by Jim Rudolph, Manager of Corporate Communications, Edmonton Regional Airports Authority. Inspired by "a new vision and desire to reflect a bolder, more confident Edmonton," the airport authority underwent a rebranding effort. Driven by the need for a new market position as an emerging hub, the airport also wanted to create a new core mes- sage that would enhance its marketing and communications effectiveness. The rebranding timeline, from con- ception to implementation, spanned 18 months, and major activities included (1) initial surveying and analysis of the survey results; (2) development of a findings and recommendations report; (3) establishing a brand plan and timeline; (4) brand development and testing by focus groups, consumers, and partners; (5) internal and external brand launch; (6) marketing brand alignment; and (7) marketing collateral development. Keys to suc- cess included (1) using research to instill credibility throughout the process; (2) including staff from outside the marketing communications realm to increase internal staff "buy-in" of the rebrand; and (3) focus on strategy-- the reason for the rebrand rather than just the design features or new "look." Stern, Gary L. Marketing Workbook for Nonprofit Organizations: Mobilize People for Marketing Success [Book]. Vol. II, Fieldstone Alliance, St. Paul, MN, 2001. This workbook was written to provide guidance on how to recruit and effectively manage volunteers. White it was directed at non-profit organizations, many of the ideas and suggestions are applicable to small airports, which often make use of volunteers to implement marketing events and campaigns. Teitelman, Judith. Hello Real World: Understanding Current Realities or How to Conduct An Organizational Self-Assessment [Online]. National Endowment for the Arts, Jan. 6, 2008. http://www.nea.gov/resources/ Lessons/TEITELMAN.HTML. This article provides a framework and techniques for conducting an organizational self-assessment as part of the larger strategic planning process in the nonprofit arena. Information is provided on how to conduct a SWOT Analysis with specific focus on data collection methodologies including sample sur- vey questions, focus group questions, and board and staff self-assessment questionnaires. Van Auken, Kristie. Akron-Canton Airport: A Better Way To Go [Conference]. ACINA Marketing and Communications Conference, Austin, TX, 2006, 14 pages. This PowerPoint presentation describes how Akron- Canton Airport has used marketing concepts and messages to promote the airport and air services to the gen- eral public as follows (1) use community champions such as the the local chamber of commerce and travel advisory boards (e.g., corporate travel managers) to increase awareness about local air services; (2) use tech- nology to reach your target market (e.g., blog port on the Internet); (3) stress the specific amenities your airport has to offer (e.g., massage chairs, restaurant, etc.); and (4) stay true to your marketing brand promises (e.g., Price + Experience = A Better Way to Go). Whited, Bradley S. A Study of Public Relations At Cortland County Airport [Report]. Dutchess County Airport, Wappingers Falls, NY, 1982, 20 pages. This case study reviews the issues faced by Cortland County Airport- Chase Field to gain community support for improvements to the airfield. Specific community objections the development and implementation of a public relations plan focused on improving the image of the airport to the community, and the resulting outcomes are described in detail. Conclusions drawn include (1) that public rela- tions is an on-going process, and not something that is done once or for a short period of time; and (2) that establishing good communications is a critical component of any effective public relations campaign.