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CHAPTER 6 MARKETING TOOLS 6.1 Step 5--Selecting Marketing Tools 6.2 Cost of Different Tools 6.3 Tools Airports Use Today 6.4 Tools Airports Consider Most Effective 6.5 Cost and Effectiveness Matrix 6.6 Essential Marketing Tools for All Airports 6.1 STEP 5--SELECTING MARKETING TOOLS Step 5 in creating a marketing plan (the last planning step) is to select the right marketing tools. Small airports use a wide range of marketing tools depending on the subject, the audience they are trying to reach, their budget, and other factors. This chapter introduces the basic categories of marketing tools and describes the tools airports use most frequently and consider most effective. This chapter also describes the essential tools that every airport should have. Step 4 Audience/Message/Actions Tools to Reach Audience and Step 5 Deliver Message Step 6 Execute Plan Source: GMH Consulting, LLC 6.2 COST OF DIFFERENT TOOLS Because many small airports operate with very limited marketing budgets, one of the major challenges they face is how to achieve the most marketing impact with the least budget. Exhibit 6.1 introduces this subject by ranking the basic marketing and promotional tools on the basis of cost. Actual costs are not provided because they vary widely by metropolitan area. Not only television and radio ads, but also billboards and other forms of advertising cost far more in major cities than in smaller communities. Nevertheless, in all markets, there is a general hierarchy of costs that airport managers should consider in selecting media. 40