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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 28 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Marketing Guidebook for Small Airports

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Independent Consultant VICE CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Jeff Hamiel MinneapolisSt. Paul MEMBERS Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY MEMBERS Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg James Crites Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson DallasFort Worth International Airport Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Richard de Neufville Norfolk, VA Massachusetts Institute of Technology William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Kevin C. Dolliole Unison Consulting David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond John K. Duval Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Beverly Municipal Airport Virginia, Charlottesville Kitty Freidheim Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Freidheim Consulting Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Steve Grossman Jacksonville Aviation Authority Randell H. Iwasaki, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Tom Jensen Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City National Safe Skies Alliance Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Catherine M. Lang Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Federal Aviation Administration Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Gina Marie Lindsey Los Angeles World Airports Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Carolyn Motz Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Hagerstown Regional Airport Rosa Clausell Rountree, CEOGeneral Manager, Transroute International Canada Services, Inc., Richard Tucker Pitt Meadows, BC Huntsville International Airport Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO EX OFFICIO MEMBERS C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Sabrina Johnson Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR Richard Marchi Airports Council International--North America Laura McKee EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Air Transport Association of America Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Henry Ogrodzinski National Association of State Aviation Officials Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Melissa Sabatine J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT American Association of Airport Executives Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Robert E. Skinner, Jr. George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York Transportation Research Board University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC James E. Caponiti, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT SECRETARY Cynthia Douglass, Acting Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Christopher W. Jenks Administration, U.S.DOT Transportation Research Board LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Rose A. McMurry, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Ronald Medford, Acting Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of October 2009. *Membership as of October 2009.

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 28 Marketing Guidebook for Small Airports Lois Kramer Peggy Fowler KRAMER aerotek, inc. Boulder, CO Robert Hazel Melissa Ureksoy OLIVER WYMAN, INC. Reston, VA Gary Harig GMH CONSULTING, LLC Burke, VA Subscriber Categories Aviation Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 28 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- Project 1-04 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN 978-0-309-11818-7 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- Library of Congress Control Number 2009944087 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- COPYRIGHT INFORMATION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP purposes and resources of the National Research Council. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration (sponsor of the Airport Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- completeness of the project reporting. sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 28 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Marci A. Greenberger, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Kami Cabral, Editor ACRP PROJECT 1-04 PANEL Field of Administration Marc P. Pelham, Mobile Airport Authority, Mobile, AL (Chair) Randall Heath Allen, Lake Charles Regional Airport, Lake Charles, LA Chuck Howell, Great Lakes Airlines, Cheyenne, WY Richard C. Howell, San Luis Obispo County (CA) Regional Airport Thomas P. Nolan, Palm Springs (CA) International Airport Susan Palmeri, Stockton Municipal Airport, Stockton, CA Lisa Anderson Spencer, TransSolutions, Arlington, VA Jack E. Thompson, Jr., C&S Companies, Orlando, FL Sharon Glasgow, FAA Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research described herein was performed under ACRP Project 01-04 by KRAMER aerotek, inc., and Oliver Wyman, Inc. Ms. Lois Kramer served as the Principal Investigator on the project. Ms. Kramer was assisted by Peggy Fowler. The team also included Robert Hazel and Melissa Ureksoy of Oliver Wyman, Inc., and Gary Harig of GMH Consulting, LLC. Each member of the team contributed extensively to the concept and content of ACRP Report 28: Marketing Guidebook for Small Airports.

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FOREWORD By Marci A. Greenberger Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 28: Marketing Guidebook for Small Airports will help airport managers with small or minimal budgets to develop a marketing program for their general aviation or commercial service airport. The Guidebook discusses the basics of marketing, takes the reader through the process of developing and implementing a plan, presents approaches to marketing and public relations, provides worksheets and concludes with a selection of instructive case studies. The Guidebook provides ideas about how to regularly communi- cate with tenants and the community, how to effectively position the airport in the region, and how to develop and retain airport activity. Airport managers and those responsible for marketing and working with communities will find many useful worksheets and tools to assess their individual situation, set goals, and select from low cost strategies to deliver their message. This well-researched guidebook, with its easy to use techniques and worksheets along with real-world examples, will help those in the airport community to create and sustain a positive and persuasive airport identity and message. As airports are increasingly under pressure to explain their contributions to the commu- nity and at the same time keep expenses down, it is important that an airport has, as a resource at their fingertips, effective strategies to generate goodwill, strengthen relation- ships, increase use of the airport, and showcase the facility. For many airports, there are few marketing resources and none available for a trial and error approach. Under ACRP Project 01-04, the research team was tasked with developing a guidebook for small airports in the areas of marketing, external communications, and public information. As part of the effort, the research team was asked to describe effective airport marketing practices and to help airport managers develop a new marketing plan or fine-tune an existing one. The project was accomplished by a review of relevant literature, existing research, published guidance, other appropriate material and by examination of lessons learned from marketing practices of other industries. The research team also surveyed and interviewed a group of small- to medium-size general aviation and commercial airports that have ongo- ing marketing programs or have experienced sustained growth. The findings were exam- ined, compiled, and the guidebook developed.

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SURVEY RESPONDENTS Mr. Royce Rankin, Airport Manager, Boire Field--Nashua Municipal Airport Mr. Curt Hawkins, Airport Manager, Caldwell Industrial Airport Mr. Robert Olislagers, Executive Director, Centennial Airport Mr. Greg Chenoweth, Airport Manager, Chandler Municipal Airport Ms. Tiffany Gillem, Airport Manager, Craig Municipal Airport Mr. Fred Guertin, Airport Manager, Fitchburg Municipal Airport Mr. Steve Brian, Executive Director, Glynn County Airport Commission Ms. Colette Edmisten, Operations Coordinator, Glynn County Airport Commission Mr. Michael Reisman, Airport Manager, Greeley-Weld County Airport Mr. Greg Larsen, Business Development Manager, Hagerstown Regional Airport Mr. Earl Hicks, Airport Director, Houma-Terrebonne Airport Mr. Terrence Lloyd, Director of Aviation, Kissimmee Gateway Airport Mr. Richard Stehmeier, Airport Manager, Logan-Cache Airport Mr. Vinicio Llerena, Director of Aviation, Orange County Airport Mr. Timothy Rogers, Executive Director, Salina Airport Authority Ms. Laura Robertson, Marketing and Public Relations Specialist, Salina Airport Authority Mr. Gary Petersen, Airport Manager, Salinas Municipal Airport Mr. Bob Shaffer, Airport Manager, DuBois Regional Airport Mr. Thomas C. Frungillo, Airport Director, Bradford Regional Airport Mr. Dave Young, Vice President--Air Service, Marketing and Development, Ft. Wayne International Airport Ms. Barbie Peek, Marketing Director, Huntsville International Airport Mr. Gabe Monzo, Airport Manager, Latrobe-Westmoreland County Airport Mr. Mike Sharkey, Airport Manager, Lee Bird Field Airport Mr. Glenn Januska, Airport Manager, Natrona County International Airport Mr. James Smith, Executive Director, Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport Mr. Joseph J. Brauer, Airport Director, Rhinelander-Oneida County Airport Mr. Greg Campbell, Executive Director, Shenandoah Valley Regional Airport Mr. Larry Salyers, Director, Tri-State Airport Mr. Terry Anderson, Executive Director, Tupelo Regional Airport CASE STUDY CONTRIBUTORS Mr. Earl Hicks, Airport Director, Houma-Terrebonne Airport Ms. Michelle Cardwell Edwards, Recruitment Director, Terrebone Economic Development Authority Mr. Michael Reisman, Airport Manager, Greeley-Weld County Airport Mr. Jeffrey Price, Faculty Member, Department of Aviation and Aerospace Science, Metropolitan State College of Denver Ms. Amber E. Schlabs, Aviation Business and Marketing Manager, Aeronautics Division, Wyoming Department of Transportation Mr. Gabe Monzo, Airport Director, Latrobe-Westmoreland County Airport Mr. Andy Stofan, President, Latrobe Area Chamber of Commerce Mr. Jim Wasylik, President, Westmedia Group, Latrobe, PA Mr. John Letterio, Vice President, Westmedia Group, Latrobe, PA Mr. David Lim, Chief Marketing Officer, Amtrak Ms. Sheryl Richards, Sr. Director Pricing and Revenue Management, Amtrak

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CONTENTS P A R T 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIRPORT MARKETING 2 Chapter 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Overview 3 1.2 How Airports Use Marketing and Public Relations 4 1.3 Navigating the Guidebook 5 Chapter 2 Marketing Plan Basics 5 2.1 How Greeley-Weld County Airport Crafted Its Marketing Plan 6 2.2 What Goes into a Marketing Plan? 7 2.3 Seven Steps to Prepare and Execute a Marketing Plan P A R T 2 PREPARATION AND EXECUTION OF A MARKETING PLAN 11 Chapter 3 Scope of Your Marketing Plan 11 3.1 Step 1--Defining Marketing Goals and Objectives 11 3.2 Assemble the Planning Team 12 3.3 Brainstorm the Marketing Issues 13 3.4 Marketing Goals and Objectives--First Draft 19 3.5 Research Findings: Marketing Goals Reported by Airport Managers 22 Chapter 4 Environment and Resources 22 4.1 Step 2--SWOT Analysis and Resource Assessment 22 4.2 SWOT Analysis 29 4.3 Resource Assessment 32 4.4 Conclusions 33 Chapter 5 Audience, Message, Actions 33 5.1 Step 3--Revise Goals and Objectives 34 5.2 Step 4--Identify Target Audience, Message, and Actions 34 5.3 Target Audience 35 5.4 Message 36 5.5 Actions--Marketing Tactics 40 Chapter 6 Marketing Tools 40 6.1 Step 5--Selecting Marketing Tools 40 6.2 Cost of Different Tools 41 6.3 Tools Airports Use Today 44 6.4 Tools Airports Consider Most Effective 45 6.5 Cost and Effectiveness Matrix 47 6.6 Essential Marketing Tools for All Airports

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48 Chapter 7 Characteristics of an Effective Marketing Plan 48 7.1 Core Components of a Marketing Plan 49 7.2 Action Plan 53 7.3 Characteristics of an Effective Marketing Plan 53 7.4 Putting the Principles to Work--Community Support Case Study 56 7.5 Importance of a Powerful Executive Summary 57 Chapter 8 Execute, Monitor, and Evaluate the Plan 57 8.1 Step 6--Execute the Plan 58 8.2 Step 7--Monitor and Evaluate the Plan 61 8.3 Modify Your Marketing Plan 61 8.4 Funding Sources P A R T 3 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PLAN 66 Chapter 9 Marketing Tools 66 9.1 Index of Marketing Tools 66 9.2 Categories of Marketing Tools 69 Chapter 10 Public Relations Tools 69 10.1 What Is Public Relations? 70 10.2 Earned Media 78 10.3 Public Speaking 80 10.4 Events 83 10.5 Promotions 87 10.6 Sponsorships and Volunteering 89 10.7 Other Public Relations Materials 93 Chapter 11 Advertising Tools 93 11.1 Types of Advertising Tools 94 11.2 Print Media 101 11.3 Signage 107 11.4 Multi-Media: Radio, Television, and Video 110 11.5 Internet and Website Tools 119 Chapter 12 Networking Opportunities 119 12.1 Business, Civic, and Non-Profit Networking Opportunities 122 12.2 Networking with Professional and Industry Organizations 123 12.3 Tradeshows and Conferences 127 12.4 Strategic Partnerships 130 12.5 Lobbying 130 12.6 Contact Managers and Networking Tools

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P A R T 4 ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 136 Chapter 13 Marketing Plan Worksheets 136 13.1 SWOT Primer 137 13.2 SWOT Examples 138 13.3 SWOT Analysis Worksheet 139 13.4 Marketing Inventory Worksheet--Human Resources 140 13.5 Marketing Inventory Worksheet--Financial Resources 141 13.6 Marketing Action Plan 142 13.7 Marketing Record 143 Chapter 14 Case Studies 143 14.1 Greeley-Weld County Airport 145 14.2 Houma-Terrebonne Airport 148 14.3 Arnold Palmer Airport 154 Chapter 15 Frequently Asked Questions 155 Chapter 16 Glossary 157 Chapter 17 Bibliography 163 Chapter 18 Airport Survey Methodology and Findings 163 18.1 Introduction 163 18.2 General Aviation Airports 170 18.3 Commercial Service Airports