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2 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design Terminal Planning Curbside Landside Airside Domestic International Arrival Departures Departures Gates Arrivals Arrivals Curb Curbside Baggage CBP Check-in Holdrooms Allocation Check-in Claim Primary Transit Curbside Inbound Passenger Baggage Waiting Allocation Baggage Screening Claim Greeter Baggage CBP Lobbies Screening Secondary Baggage Inbound Make Up Baggage Well- Greeter Wisher Lobbies Lobbies Functional Area Grouping Accumulation modeling Baggage Recheck Queuing modeling Passenger Derived by applying factors Screening Figure 1. Terminal planning functions. to a particular function. The models on the CD include those areas that require more complex analyses to support planning decisions. Figure 1 provides an overview of the functional areas in terminal planning. Check marks indicate the areas covered by the spreadsheet models. Model Overview and Format Model Uses The Spreadsheet Models are set up to be used as exercises with the knowledge gained from the Guidebook and User's Guide. The exercises are intended to provide understanding as to why ter- minal planners use certain ratios and planning factors; it is not intended as a "cookbook" of specific recipes for demand requirements. The models were developed with the goal to enhance learning. With a strong understanding of the process and methods discussed in the Guidebook and models, users should be more prepared to develop some of their own terminal space program components.
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Introduction 3 The process flow of the models is to gather data about a terminal's physical components (space utilization and availability) and determine the design hour passenger traffic. With this inventory in hand, along with the design hour determined from a base schedule or from estimation fac- tors, the user can go through each model exercise, starting with the Gate Demand model, fol- lowing the typical path of departing passengers and baggage through the airport, and ending with arriving passengers retrieving their bags at baggage claim in the Baggage Claim model. The spreadsheets are password protected to protect them from accidental overwrite of key information. However, the password is provided for the power users who may wish to make changes for specific needs. THE PASSWORD IS TRBModels. Additional help on unlocking or locking a protected workbook is provided in the Excel Help section. Model Explanations Queuing models are used within the Spreadsheet Models to better determine the processing requirements while considering passenger delays. These queuing models are referred to as "mini- queue" models in the text of the Guidebook as well as in the models. In the Check-in and Secu- rity models, an initial value is calculated for the number of check-in positions or lanes based on average processing times, desired maximum waiting time, and the assumption that passengers arrive at the processing areas at a constant rate during the entire peak period. This optimal, yet unrealistic, condition would make use of all available processing capacity and, therefore, would create a steady flow of passengers to and from the processing areas. Therefore, the initial value for positions is always lower than what is truly needed. This initial number of positions is then used as a starting point to analyze the sensitivity of expected wait times and required queuing area to variances in the number of counters or lanes. However, passengers will more likely arrive at Check-in and Security areas at varying rates. The two mini-queue models show the difference between assuming an even distribution of pas- sengers arriving at a steady flow during the peak period and assuming a normal (bell curve) dis- tribution of passengers, which better reflects real-world arrivals, with a peak in the middle of a generic period. The mini-queue models include this peaking effect and the resulting wait times are therefore based on a more likely scenario. When the model uses the initial number of pro- cessing positions, the estimated maximum wait time will be higher than the target level of ser- vice (LOS) wait time because the expected passenger arrival pattern has been assigned a peaked distribution. The user can then adjust the model input for counters or lanes until the desired wait time is reached and observe the effects on the time and space parameters based on the number of counters or lanes. Modeling Conventions and Symbols All of the models are formatted using a color-coded cell system (Figure 2). Only the white input cells are left unlocked; the blue or light green cells are locked specifically to preserve the calculations and formulae. The formulae are visible when the user places the Excel cursor on each cell. The first step after initiating the Spreadsheet Models workbook is to review the Table of Con- tents (opening tab), and to make note of the color-coded format and the use of cell comments marked with a red triangle in the upper right corner of the associated cell. These comments will Figure 2. Color coding of spreadsheet cells.