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Check-in/Ticketing Model The departures process has traditionally begun at the ticket, or check-in counter, of the ter- minal, which is referred to as the Airport Ticket Office (ATO) counter. With the increasing use of automated, self-service, and remote check-in systems, the role of the ATO counter and the terminal check-in lobby has changed and continues to evolve. There are five major types of check-in facilities: Staffed check-in counters: Many legacy carriers, depending on the location of the airport, can require a certain service level for their customers by requiring staffed ATO counters. These may be additionally divided among dedicated international, first/business class, elite-level frequent flyers, and coach domestic ticket counters. Some international carriers may require ticket purchasing positions either within the ATO counter or remotely. Self-service check-in kiosks: Self-service devices are commonly referred to as kiosks and are typically the size of an Automatic Teller Machine (ATM). These can be designed as stand- alone units that print passenger boarding passes and receipts and also allow passengers to make changes in their reservations, depending on the airline. These types of kiosks can be located remote from the ATO counter in the check-in lobby or throughout the terminal. Kiosks usually do not provide the ability to print bag tags because they are not staffed. When kiosks are located at the ATO ticket counter, they are typically configured in pairs with a bag well, which often includes a baggage scale between pairs. These combined ATO/kiosk posi- tions provide bag tag printing and bag acceptance by airline or ground handling agents who usually support multiple kiosk positions. Bag drop counters: If passengers checking in remotely have bags to check and the airline does not allow self-tagging of baggage, bag drop counters are typically provided. These bag drop counters have configurations that are similar to regular ATO counters, but are dedicated to a bag drop function. Self-tagging stations: Self-tagging stations can incorporate bag tag printers, as well as board- ing pass printers into self-service kiosks. Passengers would attach the bag tag to their luggage and deliver it to an originating input conveyor for loading into the baggage system. A self- tagging station could also be a stand-alone device that only scans the passenger's boarding pass and prints out the number of previously approved bag tags for application. These stations may require some minimal staffing requirements to handle customer service issues. Curbside check-in: Most airports allow for curbside check-in. Typically, curbside check-in facilities are equipped with conveyor belts located at these check-in podiums for direct input of bags into the outbound baggage system. At smaller airports (or for airlines who do not wish to pay for conveyors), checked bags may be placed on carts and taken into the check-in lobby to be transferred to the ATO counter bag conveyor. Whether for passenger convenience or airline staffing economics, the proportion of passengers using non-traditional check-in methods has grown significantly, and is likely to serve the majority 28