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30 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design Figure 33. Example of Staffed Counter model. The user should work on one section at a time and, when all of the inputs have been entered, check over the sections again to see if there are any errors or alerts. When all the inputs have been made, the user can make adjustments to the queue model inputs for the Staffed Counters and Kiosks to achieve the desired wait times and passenger queue spacing. Figures 34, 35, and 36 show the way common inputs are linked. Figure 37 illustrates how the user may use suggestion boxes to achieve the desired results for wait times and passenger spacing by adjusting the queue model's number of service positions. Although demand can be estimated if sufficient information is available, the number of ATO counter positions can often be as much an issue of airline back wall "billboard" space as actual demand, and/or staffing. Thus, some airlines will prefer to locate self-service kiosks in-line with the ATO counter, effectively replacing staffed counters, while others will prefer to locate kiosks in free-standing clusters or other configurations away from the ATO counter. Analysis Technique The Check-in model is designed to approach the issue of determining the required number of positions from a single-airline or common-use perspective. The model's approach can then be adjusted for additional airlines and the results of each airline can later be summed. Figure 34. Inputs to Staffed Counter model will link to models of other check-in areas. Figure 35. Inputs to Staffed Counter model appear in Kiosk model.

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Check-in/Ticketing Model 31 Figure 36. Inputs to Staffed Counter model appear in Curbside model. Regardless of the mix of facilities, the approach to determining the facilities for check-in requires essentially the same information: The number of design hour enplaning O&D passengers The number of airlines The time distribution of passengers arriving at the terminal Average service times and maximum waiting time targets The percentage of passengers using each type of facility in the ticket lobby versus other locations or going directly to the gate Use of curbside bag check-in or fully remote bag check-in The model must have all of the above data in order to produce an accurate estimate of check-in facility demand. To get the basic understanding of a queuing model without having to create a full-scale design day queuing model, a mini-queue model has been created to show delays at check-in during the peak 30-minute period within a peak period of the design day. This 30-minute slice of the design day can be used more generically to show the position requirements based on processing times and desired maximum wait periods. The mini-queue model uses an adjusted normal distribu- tion curve around the center of the peak 30 minutes, with the average flow rates during the design hour as the leading and trailing arrival rates, to establish a stand-alone delay model. Design hour enplanements can be converted to the peak 30 minutes by prior knowledge of the passenger arrivals time distribution. Figure 38 gives the overall process of a queue model, while Figure 39 is the mini-queue model used to determine the flow conditions for ATO check-in. The approach that is used in the spreadsheet model allows the user to determine the design hour O&D passengers departing during the peak 30 minutes, based on the arrivals distribution. That number is split into the three main areas of check-in by profile data gathered through surveys; then the 30-minute model is run for each area; and the totals are summed by airline or for the entire airport as a common-use facility. One advantage of this approach is that it allows the planner to include LOS assumptions for waiting time. However, it also requires data (or estimates) for average processing times and the arrival time distribution. It must also be done separately for each airline or group of airlines (assuming the design hour occurs at a similar time for the airlines, or some type of common-use facility). Otherwise adjustments must be made for exclusive-use check-in positions, which may not be in use by airlines during the terminal's peak. Figure 37. Suggestion boxes.

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32 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design Process Processed Total Passenger Delay Capacity(Pax) Passengers Wait(min)(Bkt1) Avg.(min) or Bucket Initial Passengers Arriving Total Passengers to Total + = - = Remaining Initial Passengers = Passengers who Delay #1 in the Queue(Bkt1) Passengers be Processed Passengers - Passengers in the Queue Waited(Bkt1) Max(min) {lesser amount} Bucket Initial Passengers #2 in the Queue(Bkt2) Figure 38. Queue process flowchart. The standard staffed counter check-in queue is normally the major source of check-in delay, but with more travelers using self-service check-in options, the queue for using the Kiosks may be the queue to focus on. Both Staffed Counter and Kiosk portions of the Check-in/Ticketing model have mini-queue models that measure the passengers in queue and the maximum wait times based on the passenger and position inputs. The model will help determine the current LOS conditions and, by adjusting the position inputs for the mini-queue models, the user will see the time and space effects from position allocation. When obtaining data on processing times for staffed or self-service check-in facilities, the user should exercise caution with airline-furnished data. Typically these service times only reflect the time an agent or kiosk is in use for a transaction (from log-in to delivery of boarding passes) and thus underestimates the full time taken by each passenger to complete the check-in process and walk away, making the position available for the next passenger. Depending on the type of flight (domestic or international) and time of day (flights departing before or after 9 a.m.), the percentage of a flight's passengers who arrive for check-in during the Figure 39. Mini-queue model for staffed counters.