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Check-in/Ticketing Model 35 airport authorities or joint airline operating companies. New standards incorporating both CUTE counters and Common Use Self-Service (CUSS) kiosks are in development by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and should be in place in late 2009. These Common Use Passenger Processing System (CUPPS) standards will resolve some commonality issues which have increased the costs and complexity of introducing common use equipment at many airports. Dedicated ticket sales positions for foreign flag carriers. Many foreign carriers require separate counters for ticket sales because of internal training/accounting procedures and/or the use of non-airline personnel (handling agents) for the actual passenger check-in process. Space Allocation The number of forecast ECPs can be converted to conventional linear positions to establish the length of the ATO counter. As noted, locations for kiosks are a combination of airline pref- erence and the physical constraints of the ticket lobby. To determine the length of an ATO counter for future activity, assumptions are made as to the ratio of in-line kiosks as compared to those located elsewhere in the ticket lobby. The resulting number of in-line and staffed ATO positions determine the length of the counter. A Space Summary (Figure 44) is provided at the bottom of the spreadsheet model and will appear with the Curbside section. The dimensions that have been observed as normal or acceptable are described in the following paragraphs and although they are a good measure of what should work and be sufficient, careful observations of each individual airport are necessary to make adjustments on the use and allocation of space in the terminal. Typical Dimensions of the ATO Counter The ATO counter consists of the actual counter, agent work space, and the baggage conveyors. In most domestic and smaller airports, the conveyor is arranged parallel to the counter and the bags are taken from the counter bag well to the conveyor manually. The overall depth of this configuration is typically 10 feet from back wall to face of counter. The average width per agent varies from 4 to 5 feet depending on counter design and whether bag wells or bag scales are shared. Most domestic carriers can use a 6-foot double counter plus a shared 30-inch bag well for an average of 4.25 feet per agent. There are also typically breaks in the ATO counter to allow personnel access to individual ATO office areas, and end counters typically do not have bag wells. This increases the average ATO counter length for planning to approxi- mately 5.0 to 5.5 linear feet per position for most terminals. The width of an in-line kiosk can be less than that of a staffed counter, but is highly dependent on individual airlines' equipment. For planning, all in-line positions are often assumed to require the same width. See Figure 45. Figure 44. Space Summary section.

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36 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design Source: Hirsh Associates Figure 45. Typical linear ticket lobby. In many international terminals where bags are heavier, powered take-back belts (typically 24 inches wide) for each agent are used. The overall depth of this configuration is typically 12 to 15 feet including a parallel baggage conveyor. The average width per agent varies from 6 to 7 feet depending on counter design. This configuration has also been required by some larger domestic airlines. Typical Dimensions of Check-in/Ticket Lobby The ticket lobby includes the passenger queuing area for the ATO counter and the cross- circulation zone at the main entrance of the terminal building. Self-service kiosks can also be located within the passenger queuing area. Active Check-in Zone In front of the counter is space for the passengers who are being checked in and for circulation to and from the check-in positions. This space is recommended to be 10 feet deep, with 8 feet as a minimum. Passenger Queuing Area The total amount of passenger queuing area is ultimately determined by the number of pas- sengers expected to be in the queue and the width of the ticket lobby (number of check-in posi- tions). It has been found that 15 feet is typically the minimum depth for passenger queuing and is adequate for lower activity terminals. Medium and higher activity terminals typically require 20 to 25 feet for queuing, respectively. The model includes a LOS table with IATA-recommended areas per passenger which vary with the use of bag carts, etc. Queues may be a combination of single queues (one per check-in position) or multi-server serpentine queues. The minimum width of a queue is recommended to be 4.5 to 5.0 feet. At ter- minals with larger checked bags, heavy use of bag carts, and/or larger traveling parties, wider queues are appropriate. Queue ropes should be spaced to provide more space at turns, with 5 feet as the minimum and 6 feet recommended when bag carts are used.

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Check-in/Ticketing Model 37 For stand-alone kiosks, 8 feet for the passengers and circulation is recommended. See Figure 46 for an illustration of check-in queuing dimensions. Cross-Circulation Zone A cross-circulation zone is needed behind the passenger queue. This zone should be free of obstructions and separate from seating areas, the Flight Information Display System (FIDS), advertising displays, and/or entrance vestibules. The width of this zone is recommended to be a minimum of 10 feet at lower activity terminals, increasing to 20 feet at higher activity terminals. Total Dimensions The combination of these three functions results in the following typical dimensions for the ticket lobby: Low Activity Terminals: 35 feet Medium Activity Terminals: 45 feet High Activity Domestic Terminals (minimum): 55 feet High Activity International Terminals: 50 to 70 feet Terminals with unusual conditions resulting in large surges of passengers such as charters, cruise ship activity, etc. may require deeper lobbies. In all cases, the ticket lobby should be as barrier free as possible, with enough space provided for cross-circulation flows so they do not trigger automatic openers for curb doors. Seating areas, entrance vestibules, and other functions would be in addition to these and typ- ically add a minimum of 5 feet to the overall depth of most lobbies. The linear/frontal configuration is the most common for domestic terminals, as well as many terminals handling international passengers with limited numbers of airlines. This con- figuration provides the most frontage as compared to the number of check-in positions. Pier 8FT / 2.4M minimun Typical Queue Lines 4.5-5FT / 1.4-1.5M wide (ADA min.=3.7FT / 1.1M) 5FT / 1.5M min. at turns 8FT / Self-Serve 2.4M 22FT / 6.7M Kiosks 8FT / 2.4M Source: Hirsh Associates Figure 46. Typical queue dimensions.

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38 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design 8FT / 2.4M 30FT / 9M overall curb width Source: Hirsh Associates Figure 47. Typical curbside bag check area. or island configurations typically provide more check-in positions for similar frontage than linear configurations. Curbside Check-in Dimensions Curbside baggage check-in is popular at many airports. The dimensions for these facilities are similar to that of typical check-in counters. Figure 47 illustrates a two-position check-in podium with a bag belt to the side. This configuration minimizes the depth of the podium (8 feet). Depth can also be limited by locating the bag conveyor within the terminal front wall to allow a more conventional counter configuration. Passenger queuing and cross-circulation space is recommended to be a minimum of 12 feet, with greater depth for higher activity terminals where there may be more circulation along the curb edge. It is normally anticipated that queues will form parallel to the curb rather than toward the vehicle lanes. This results in a 30-foot recommended depth. The curb depth is also influenced by the presence of vehicle barricades that may be required at some airports for blast protection considerations unrelated to passenger processing.