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40 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design Figure 48. Example of Security Screening model. The Demand portion of the Security Screening model is broken out in Figure 49 where the user determines the percentage of additional traffic at the airport in question, the throughput in passengers/hour/lane and the desired maximum waiting time. These inputs will provide a starting point for the required number of screening lanes. The linked mini-queue model uses a normal peaked distribution, which allows for lags and surges in the flow, to estimate a required number of screening lanes that is more likely to achieve the desired maximum waiting time. This mini-queue model is similar to that used in the Check-in model. Typical Equipment Passenger checkpoints have changed since the creation of the TSA, becoming larger than pre- vious installations. As TSA procedures and equipment continue to evolve, it is expected that the configuration and size of the SSCPs will change as well. Figure 49. Example of Security Demand entry.

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Security Screening Model 41 As of this writing (2009), a standard SSCP contains five major components (See Figure 50): X-ray for carry-on bags Walk-through metal detector (WTMD) A search area for passengers who set off the WTMD Explosives Trace Detection (ETD) for checking bags Whole Body Image (WBI) Additional equipment that has been tested in the recent past includes a separate X-ray for shoes, passenger ETD portals ("puffers"), WBI, and other equipment currently undergoing testing. The TSA's ultimate goal is to have fewer pieces of equipment with better capabilities to speed up passenger processing. However, it is also likely that SSCPs will become larger and slower before they reduce in size and become faster. A typical standard configuration has one X-ray for each WTMD and is approximately 25 feet wide for a pair of lanes. At some airports, a different configuration consisting of two X-rays for one WTMD has been installed. This can result in a slightly narrower footprint. Non-standard configu- rations are also used where physical constraints do not allow a typical line of inspection lanes. Additional width may be associated with Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) accessible lanes. The length of the SSCP varies depending on a number of factors, but is primarily related to the length of the divestment tables prior to the X-ray for passengers to unpack laptop comput- ers, take off jackets and shoes, and remove metal objects from pockets. Similarly the length of roller beds and collection tables and seats after the SSCP, to put clothing back on, and re-pack bags can vary. Airports are experimenting with these functions and there is no standard for these tables at present. Forty feet is considered an absolute minimum length for an SSCP. TSA recom- mends a 60-foot length since the longer length increases checkpoint throughput. Source: Checkpoint Design Guide (CDG), Revision 1, February 11, 2009, Transportation Security Administration Figure 50. SSCP equipment configurations.