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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 31 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Innovative Approaches to Addressing Aviation Capacity Issues in Coastal Mega-regions

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Independent Consultant Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore VICE CHAIR EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Jeff Hamiel MinneapolisSt. Paul MEMBERS Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY MEMBERS Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg James Crites Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson DallasFort Worth International Airport Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Richard de Neufville Norfolk, VA Massachusetts Institute of Technology William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Kevin C. Dolliole Unison Consulting Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, John K. Duval Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Beverly Municipal Airport Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Kitty Freidheim Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Freidheim Consulting Randell H. Iwasaki, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Steve Grossman Jacksonville Aviation Authority Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Tom Jensen Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City National Safe Skies Alliance Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Catherine M. Lang Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Federal Aviation Administration Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Gina Marie Lindsey Los Angeles World Airports Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Carolyn Motz Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Hagerstown Regional Airport Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Richard Tucker Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Huntsville International Airport Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Sabrina Johnson Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI Richard Marchi Airports Council International--North America C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Laura McKee Air Transport Association of America EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Henry Ogrodzinski National Association of State Aviation Officials Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Melissa Sabatine Homeland Security, Washington, DC American Association of Airport Executives Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Robert E. Skinner, Jr. J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Transportation Research Board Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York SECRETARY University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Christopher W. Jenks Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Transportation Research Board LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administration, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of October 2009. *Membership as of February 2010.

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 31 Innovative Approaches to Addressing Aviation Capacity Issues in Coastal Mega-regions RESOURCE SYSTEMS GROUP INC. White River Junction, VT IN ASSOCIATION WITH Matthew A. Coogan White River Junction, VT Mark Hansen Megan Smirti Ryerson UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY Berkeley, CA Larry Kiernan Reston, VA Joerg Last STRATA CONSULTING Karlsruhe, Germany Richard Marchi ACINA Washington, DC Robert Yatzeck Leesburg, VA Subscriber Categories Administration and Management Aviation Planning and Forecasting Railroads Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 31 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- Project 03-10 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN 978-0-309-11827-9 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- Library of Congress Control Number 2010923764 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- COPYRIGHT INFORMATION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP purposes and resources of the National Research Council. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration (sponsor of the Airport Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- completeness of the project reporting. sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. 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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 31 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Joseph J. Brown-Snell, Program Associate Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Maria Sabin Crawford, Assistant Editor ACRP PROJECT 03-10 PANEL Field of Policy and Planning Roger P. Moog, Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission, Philadelphia, PA (Chair) Michael Armstrong, Southern California Association of Governments, Los Angeles, CA Loureno Dantas, Massachusetts Port Authority, East Boston, MA Peggy Ducey, Ducey & Associates, Chandler, AZ William Lebegern, Washington Metropolitan Airports Authority, Washington, DC Ivar C. Satero, City & County of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA George E. Schoener, I-95 Corridor Coalition, Reston, VA Angela Shafer-Payne, San Diego County Regional Airport Authority, San Diego, CA Anne Stubbs, Coalition of Northeastern Governors Policy Research Center, Washington, DC James Wilding, Glenwood, MD Paul Devoti, FAA Liaison David Valenstein, FRA Liaison Terry L. Barrie, California Department of Transportation, Division of Aeronautics Liaison Randall P. Burdette, Virginia Department of Aviation Liaison Elaine King, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 31: Innovative Approaches to Addressing Aviation Capacity Issues in Coastal Mega-regions examines the aviation capacity issues in the two coastal mega-regions located along the East and West coasts of the United States. The Report suggests integrated strategic actions to enhance decision making to address the constrained aviation system capacity and growing travel demand in the high-density, multijurisdictional, multimodal, coastal mega- regions. New and innovative processes are needed if the aviation capacity issues in these congested coastal mega-regions are going to be successfully addressed. These high-density areas invite an entirely new approach for planning and decision making that goes beyond the existing practice for transportation planning and programming that is usually accom- plished within single travel modes and political jurisdictions or regions. This research will be useful for airport operators, regional transportation planners, and transportation agencies, as well as public officials at the federal, state, and local levels and other stakeholders involved in dealing with aviation capacity issues in the coastal mega-regions. Most areas of the United States have plans and capabilities to meet projected aviation demand. However, this is not the case in the two mega-regions located along the East and West Coasts. A recently released Federal Aviation Administration study, Capacity Needs in the National Airspace System 20072025 (commonly referred to as FACT-2) indicates met- ropolitan areas and regions along the East and West Coasts are experiencing large amounts of growth in population and economic activity that demonstrate chronic congestion prob- lems in the air and on the ground. Based on the FACT-2 information, conditions in these two coastal mega-regions are projected to get worse in the future. Traditional approaches are unlikely to address these problems that extend beyond current jurisdictional and leg- islative authorities of existing agencies. Current airport planning is done at three levels: (1) airport specific (master planning); (2) regional area (normally the geographic area corresponding to a metropolitan planning organization's jurisdiction); and (3) statewide system. Those focused plans are not sufficient to address capacity limitations when considering "mega-regions" of airports along the East and West Coasts. For example, the effects that the traffic from major airports within each of these coastal mega-regions have on each other need to be better understood. Optimizing available resources for the expansion of transportation infrastructure to accommodate anticipated growth should be a key consideration. This research effort was conducted by Resource Systems Group, Inc., as the prime con- tractor, with Matthew A. Coogan, an independent consultant in transportation, serving as Principal Investigator, and with the assistance of University of California at Berkeley and several private consultants.

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CONTENTS 1 Executive Summary 19 Chapter 1 Defining the Issues: Defining the Problem 19 1.1 Introduction 21 1.2 Understanding the Scale of the Mega-regions and Their Airports 23 1.3 Scale of Air Travel within the Two Study Areas 24 1.4 The Problem of Airport Congestion in the Mega-regions 27 1.5 Costs to Travelers of Airport Congestion and Delays 30 1.6 The Costs of Doing Nothing 32 1.7 Conclusion 34 Chapter 2 Aviation Capacity and the Need for a Multimodal Context 34 2.0 Introduction 35 2.1 Demand for HSR in Travel from City Center to City Center 36 2.2 Rail Services in the Western Mega-regions that Could Influence Aviation Capacity Issues 42 2.3 Rail Services in the Eastern Mega-region that Could Influence Aviation Capacity Issues 48 2.4 What Happens at the Airports When Air Passengers Are Diverted to Other Modes? 49 2.5 Rail as a Complementary Mode to the Aviation System 55 2.6 Additional Capacity from Highways in the Mega-regions to Accommodate Excess Aviation Demand 57 Chapter 3 Multijurisdictional Issues in Aviation Capacity Planning 57 3.1 Purpose 57 3.2 Background 58 3.3 Examples of Existing Multijurisdictional Airport Planning Processes 61 3.4 Mega-region Framework Approach to Airport Planning 63 3.5 Underused Airports in the East Coast Mega-region: Examples 66 3.6 Reviewing the Potential Roles of the MPOs and the Need for Larger Geographic Coverage 70 3.7 Summary Observations 72 Chapter 4 Airport-Specific Implications of the Major Themes 72 4.1 Major Themes of the Report for Airport-Specific Application 73 4.2 Strategic Implications for the Major Airports in the West Coast Study Area 78 4.3 Understanding the Role of Smaller Airports in the West Coast Study Area 78 4.4 Strategic Implications for Major Airports in the East Coast Study Area

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88 4.5 Understanding the Role of Smaller Airports in the East Coast Study Area 89 4.6 Description of the ACRP Project Database 89 4.7 Implications of the Airport-by-Airport Review for a Comprehensive Strategy to Deal with Aviation Capacity in the Coastal Mega-regions 90 Chapter 5 Airport Demand Management 90 5.1 Introduction 90 5.2 The Promise of Demand Management: A Case Study 101 5.3 Implications 101 5.4 The Role of Airport Managers in Increasing Capacity 103 5.5 Guiding Principles for Demand Management 105 5.6 Guidance and Accountability 109 5.7 Flexibility 113 Chapter 6 What Was Learned, and What Are the Next Steps 113 6.0 Introduction 114 6.1 Concerning Theme No. 1: The Scale of the Problem 114 6.2 Concerning Theme No. 2: Making the Process Multimodal 117 6.3 Concerning Theme No. 3: Making the Process Multijurisdictional 118 6.4 Concerning Theme No. 4: The Potential for Demand Management 120 References 122 Appendix A Airport Interviews and Technology Issues 135 Appendix B Highway Congestion and the Aviation System 142 Appendix C ACRP 3-10 Airport Activity Summary Sheets and Tables