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113 CHAPTER 6 What Was Learned, and What Are the Next Steps The scale of the capacity problem Analysis should continue on the questions of airport choice, schedule-based delay, and whether alternative forms of hub- bing could relieve key mega-region airports. Making the process more multimodal The aviation system is not well equipped to undertake the kind of multimodal analysis associated with the present wider choice of options for long distance trip making; both the tools and the structure could be improved. The potential role of rail complementarity in the United States should be documented further. Making the process more multijurisdictional Regional solutions could gain optimized capacity from a "family of airports" concept. Regional organizations could be crafted based on unique local requirements and (at least partially) on a passenger-centric basis. Multimodal tools and procedures could be developed to support integration with the comprehensive planning process. Dealing with airport management, the report explores a variety of approaches, including the following: Giving individual airport operators the primary responsibility for developing demand management programs appro- priate for their local circumstances within broad national guidelines; Enhancing the ability of airports to manage demand through a variety of operational and pricing-related options; and Outlining an example of a potential framework for demand management that would define a set of critical-delay airports, along with the establishment of delay standards and an accepted method of predicting delay. Exhibit 6.0. What was learned and what are the next steps. 6.0 Introduction travel demand in the high-density, multijurisdictional, multi- modal, coastal mega-regions along the East and West Coasts. Chapter 6 is presented in four major sections. The sections New and innovative processes/methodologies are needed if are designed to build upon the four major themes established the aviation capacity issues in these congested coastal mega- regions are going to be successfully addressed. These high- in the project. Each section presents some major conclusions density areas invite an entirely new approach for planning and concerning that theme, and some specific suggestions for decision making that goes beyond the existing practice for action or further research. Each of the major suggestions and transportation planning and programming that is usually accom- conclusions are presented here in order to carry out the objec- plished within single travel modes and political jurisdictions or tive of this research. regions. The objective of this research is to identify potential actions to The conclusions and suggestions that follow tend to share (to address the constrained aviation system capacity and growing a greater and lesser extent) a common theme (see Exhibit 6.0).