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70 New Haven, CT: Tweed New Haven 1,600,000 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000,000 800,000 Other 600,000 Theodore Francis Green 400,000 Newark Liberty Bradley 200,000 LaGuardia JFK 0 Southeast US Transatlantic South-Central America Upper Midwest Southern California Lower Middle West Transpacific Northern California Mid-Atlantic NY/NJ/PA Northwest Zone Alaska/Canada New England JFK LGA Bradley EWR PVD Westchester BOS Tweed-New Destination Zone (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) County (%) (%) Haven (%) Southeast US 37 26 26 4 2 4 1 1 Transatlantic 95 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 South-Central America 85 5 7 2 0 0 0 0 Upper Midwest 19 42 30 3 2 2 1 1 Southern California 74 5 16 3 1 0 0 0 Lower Midwest 33 30 29 4 2 1 1 1 Transpacific 88 3 5 2 0 0 0 0 Northern California 76 5 14 3 1 0 1 0 Mid-Atlantic 20 28 41 1 6 1 1 2 NY, NJ, PA 68 13 12 1 4 0 2 1 Northwest Zone 56 11 25 4 2 1 1 0 AlaskaCanada 35 45 14 3 0 1 1 0 New England 53 44 0 2 0 0 0 0 Grand Total 59 17 17 3 1 1 1 1 Figure 3.13. Present airport of departure for Tweed-New Haven Regional Airport natural market area, by trip destination. to MPOs and engaging them in aviation system planning patterns (e.g., Washington, D.C.Baltimore, the Tampa Bay efforts. Joint discussions could be convened among airport Region, and the San Joaquin Valley). managers and MPO officials, to outline the structure and content of regional planning efforts, tailored to the specific 3.7 Summary Observations needs of each major metropolitan area. Although "official" MPO planning areas are not necessarily precisely coincident The existing multijurisdictional projects discussed in this with the geographic market areas of airports, it is not uncom- chapter provide examples of ways in which transportation mon for co-terminus MPOs to formally or informally share issues that transcend airport boundaries have been addressed data and modeling tools and expertise. This has been par- through regional planning approaches. Most important is that, ticularly true in mega-regions with multiple MPOs where in each case, the airport managers/operators recognized the formal jurisdictional boundaries do not reflect actual travel need to cooperate and collaborate, to varying degrees, for their

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71 common good. In addition, the cross section of applications of strategies to deal with congestion and delay at airports. Another advanced planning methods for California, the Philadelphia topic that needs regional attention is the transition to more region, and the NYC region show that data collected and ana- efficient airport ground access, to offer greater convenience lyzed on a multijurisdictional basis can be directly applied to and lower carbon emissions.31 decision making on a local or case-by-case basis. As noted, for a multi-airport (regional) systems planning In the case of NERASP, a variety of parties representing process to work, there has to be a transition from over-reliance diverse interests across six states recognized the value of think- on airport-to-airport analysis of flows. While critically impor- ing as a region in order to help air travelers fly to and from tant, they must be supplemented by data to support a more New England in an efficient and timely manner. The NERASP fine-grained analysis. To support the policy analysis of alterna- initiative has facilitated greater air service access for more peo- tive roles for various airports in a super-region, it is necessary ple throughout the region and decreased BOS's share of the to organize the basic data on a true-origin to true-destination region's air traffic even as the number of flights overall has basis. Pioneering work undertaken by MITRE in the FATE climbed. data uses a county-to-county basis for their forecasting activ- In the two major regions of California and the Washington/ ities. Such a focus for the data structure allows for a better Baltimore region, well-established MPOs have assumed major integration with presently available data from non-aviation roles in facilitating a regional perspective on airport planning. sources and potentially would support later integration with In the Washington/Baltimore region, the MWCOG has col- highway and rail forecasting activities. This chapter has lected, analyzed, and reported data on passengers, ground demonstrated the application of county-based true origin access, and other areas for all three major hubs (IAD, DCA, data to the simple task of examining natural geographic mar- and BWI). This information has been used not only for air- ket areas--but this is only a rudimentary example of the need port facility planning, but also for multimodal ground access to organize aviation data in this manner. planning that facilitates more flexibility in what airports flights may serve and in passenger choice. In the Los Angeles Timing. Today, planning and development decisions for Basin, SCAG has developed new modeling tools for airport major commercial service airports are usually not influenced access. In San Francisco, the MTC leads development of the in any significant way by regional planning. The researchers RASP and convenes stakeholders in the often-contentious believe, while this is the prevailing situation, it is far from airport system planning process. Importantly, the MTC's desirable. A major finding of this research is that the regional planning process is not being used to its potential. The weak regional perspective has helped create a willingness among regional system planning process is an artifact of an earlier airport managers to think "beyond their fence lines" about era, and today it can impede efforts to optimize the airport how to continue serving the region's increasing demand for system. passenger air service in ways other than further overburden- The concept of improving the regional planning approach ing major hubs. is timely; changes would have little immediate financial impact Content. The creation of new regional analyses would and therefore should not confront overwhelming institu- allow the collection and analysis of information not previously tional obstacles. The critical parties for changing regional air- examined in the planning process, with a few exceptions such port system practices exist on the federal, metropolitan, and as NERASP and on-going work in California. As noted in airport-specific levels. The research team believes that there Section 3.2.1, the research team believes that one of the missing is willingness to implement major changes at all three levels. elements in the process of regional analysis is a well-articulated The major obstacle is inertia, and on the basis of the inter- and well-documented statement of passenger preference. This views, it appears that there is more than enough energy and is not a simple matter, as it would encompass a variety of fac- enthusiasm to overcome such inertia. To start the process of tors typically grouped as airport level-of-service issues (aver- revitalizing and empowering the regional system planning age delay, number of delays in excess of 15 min, number of process, the research team suggests that airport operators and cancellations) as well as airline service considerations (com- MPOs could be contacted to outline the structure and con- petition, fare structure, non-stop destinations and type of tent of regional planning efforts, tailored to the specific needs equipment). However, a thorough analysis of these factors of each major metropolitan area. could produce the information and the regional consensus needed to support local recommendations on how to develop 31 The reader is referred to ACRP Report 4 for a complete discussion of these issues.