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27 tional traffic control in terms of the maintenance, whereas to fully master ATCS operations is not sufficient. ATCS oper- 17% believe that it is easier to maintain ATCSs than regular ations are often not perceived as being difficult. However, it traffic signal systems. When it comes to which components appears that there is a discrepancy between what ATCS users of the systems are the most challenging to maintain, most of know and what they believe that they know about ATCS oper- the ATCS users (65%) find that detection is the most chal- ations. Some agencies reported operational problems that lenging. The second and third most difficult components to indicated a lack of the basic knowledge on how to operate an maintain were found to be communications (30%) and soft- ATCS despite survey results to the contrary. Most ATCS users ware and hardware (11% each). rely on in-house expertise, which is more an indication of the lack of resources available to hire outside support than that ATCS agencies have the required expertise. Most of the agen- SUMMARY cies would prefer to acquire more expertise on the ATCS, but inadequate funding is the major obstacle to acquiring the This chapter identified institutional aspects of operations, train- required knowledge. Inadequate funding does not indicate ing, and maintenance at the agencies that deploy ATCSs. only problems in getting proper training; more importantly, ATCSs are only tools for traffic control, and as with any it limits an agencies' ability to hire more staff. Most of the other tools could be supervised and controlled by a skilled ATCS users found that ATCSs are operationally more demand- engineering staff. Proper acquisition, training, and retention ing than conventional traffic signal systems; however, over- of expertise within an agency are the most important factors all, an agencies' ability to support these systems is less than for alleviating institutional barriers for ATCS deployments. to support conventional systems. The next chapter reports on The current practice shows that at times an agencies' ability system requirements for ATCS deployments.