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83 APPENDIX B Survey Questionnaire SURVEY FOR AGENCIES THAT UTILIZE ADAPTIVE TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS The Transportation Research Board's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) has commissioned a study on Adaptive Traffic Control Systems (ATCS). The goal of the research is to synthesize the current state of practice on using these sys- tems in the U.S. and selected foreign countries. We have less than 50 ATCS in the U.S. Yours is among the few. This means that your experience of working with an ATCS is very important to us. We need your opinion and experience to help us to assess the overall performance and applicability of ATCS in the U.S. Please be assured that your responses will be kept in strictest confidence. We will aggregate them with all other responses. Name: Organization: Position: Address: Phone: Fax: E-mail: Section I: General Information 1. Please indicate the type of your agency: a. City government b. County government c. State government d. Regional organization (e.g., metropolitan planning organization) e. Federal government f. Consultant g. Other, please specify: _________________________ Approximately, how many traffic signals does your agency operate? ________; and how many are under Adaptive Traffic Control System (ATCS)? _______ 2. How would you characterize ATCS deployment at your agency? a. ATCS fully deployed (Year:___ Month:___) and working b. ATCS fully deployed (Year:___ Month:___) and turned off/removed (Year:__ Month:__) c. ATCS about to be deployed (Please specify expected time of full operations Y:__ M:__) d. ATCS was tested (Year:___ Month:___ Test duration:___) but never deployed 3. Please specify type of traffic control used before ATCS was installed. (Check all that apply.) a. Fixed-time coordinated control b. Actuated coordinated control
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84 c. Fixed-time isolated control d. Actuated isolated control e. Other, please specify: ______________________________________________________ 4. How long did it take to get the ATCS installed (from time when funding was available until ATCS was fully operational)? a. Less than 3 months b. 36 months c. 612 months d. 12 years e. More than 2 years 5. Which ATCS(s) does your agency deploy? (Check all that apply.) a. ACS Lite; Version _____________ b. LA ATCS; Version _____________ c. OPAC; Version _____________ d. RHODES; Version _____________ e. SCATS; Version _____________ f. SCOOT; Version _____________ g. Other (Please specify): ____________________________________________ 6. Did you seriously consider other ATCSs before you selected this one for installation in your jurisdiction? Why did you reject the other(s) in favor of this one? _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. How familiar do you consider yourself with your ATCS? a. I know the system very well [for multiple systems specify which one(s) ___________] b. I have a good working knowledge [for multiple systems specify which one(s) ________] c. I understand it but am no specialist [for multiple systems specify which one(s) ________] d. I have a vague understanding [for multiple systems specify which one(s) ___________] e. Unfamiliar [for multiple systems specify which one(s) ___________] 8. How many traffic signal operations staff (for all traffic signals) are in your organization? a. Engineers __________ b. Timing technicians __________ c. Field technicians __________ d. Maintenance technicians __________ e. Others __________
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85 9. How many times have new intersections been added under the ATCS umbrella since its initial deployment? (Please specify the reason.) a. None b. Once __Major expansion __New signals added within the system c. Twice __Major expansion __New signals added within the system d. 3+ times __Major expansion __New signals added within the system 10. Which of the following type(s) of network configuration best represent your typical ATCS deployment? a. Arterial b. Grid c. Radial d. Combination of the above e. Other, please specify: _______________________________________________ 11. Why did you agency install an ATCS? Please rank the reasons provided below according to their importance? (1 for the least important; 9 for the most important): a. Reducing/eliminating costs of retiming traffic signals #__ b. Handling oversaturated traffic conditions #__ c. Handling traffic special events #__ d. Handling high day-to-day and within-a-day traffic variability #__ e. Handling conflicts between vehicular traffic and other modes (pedestrian, transit, etc.) #__ f. Serving as a testbed/early deployer of innovative signal control method #__ g. Availability of funding for capital ITS projects #__ h. Expecting significant operational savings and/or high benefit/cost ratio #__ i. Other (please specify): _______________________________________________ #__ 12. How satisfied are you, in general, with the adaptive aspect of your ATCS deployment? a. Very satisfied b. Somewhat satisfied c. Neutral d. Somewhat dissatisfied e. Not satisfied at all
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86 13. If your ATCS does not operate on all signals in your jurisdictions at all times of day, why haven't you expanded it to do so? _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ Section II: System Requirements Detection 14. What type of detection technology do you use for your ATCS? (Check all that apply.) a. Inductive loops b. Video detection c. Radar detection d. Other (please specify): ________________________________ 15. How would you characterize the level of detection needed for the proper functioning of your ATCS? a. More detectors than actuated traffic control systems b. Number of detectors is similar to the number used by actuated traffic control systems c. Fewer detectors than used by actuated traffic control systems 16. How many detectors does your ATCS use for a typical 4-leg 12-movement (a lane per movement) intersection:____? Please pro- vide additional description here: _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ 17. Where are detectors typically placed in your ATCS deployment? a. Upstream, ____ ft from a downstream intersection b. Stop-line c. Mid-block, ____ ft from a downstream intersection d. Combination of ____ and ____ 18. Where left-turn detectors are typically placed in your ATCS deployment? a. Filter detection (detector is placed in the destination lane of a left-turn movement) b. Stop-line detection c. Behind stop-line detection (23 car lengths behind; triggers protected left only for 23 + cars) d. Upstream detection, _____ ft from downstream intersection e. Combination of ____ and ____ f. No left-turn detectors 19. How does your ATCS work with minor detector malfunctioning (only a few detectors fail)? a. Very well b. Acceptably
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87 c. Neutrally d. Poorly e. Very poorly 20. What happens to your ATCS operations when many detectors fail? a. ATCS continues to operate as if nothing happened b. ATCS triggers an alarm and notifies operators c. ATCS switches to an "off-line" mode by implementing Time-Of-Day plans d. Combination of ____ and ____ e. Other (please describe): _____________________________________________ Hardware 21. Does your ATCS use hardware with which you and your colleagues are familiar? a. Central controller (server) __Yes __No b. Local controllers __Yes __No c. Additional hardware __Yes __No Please specify additional hardware: __________________________________________ 22. What type of traffic controllers are used by your ATCS? (Check all that apply.) a. NEMA TS-1, # of controllers ____ b. NEMA TS-2, # of controllers ____ c. 170, # of controllers ____ d. 2070, # of controllers ____ e. Other, please specify: _______________________ Software 23. What type of Operating System (OS) does your ATCS run? a. Windows-based OS b. Unix-based OS c. Open VMS d. Other, please specify: ___________________ 24. How user-friendly is your ATCS' software? a. Very friendly b. Friendly
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88 c. Neutral d. Unfriendly e. Very unfriendly Communications 25. How dependent is your ATCS on reliable communications? Rate the level of importance of the communications for your deployment? (1- the most important, 3 - the least important): a. Communications between elements at the intersection _____ b. Peer-to-peer communications _____ c. Field controller to central system communications _____ 26. What type of transmission media does your ATCS use for communication between central hardware/software and field traffic controllers? (Check all that apply.) a. Twisted pair b. Telephone line c. Coaxial cable d. Fiber optic e. Microwave (terrestrial or satellite) f. Wireless (application protocol or broadband systems) g. Other, please specify: _______________________ 27. What type of transmission media does your ATCS use for communication between field traffic controllers? (Check all that apply.) a. Twisted pair b. Telephone line c. Coaxial cable d. Fiber optic e. Microwave (terrestrial or satellite) f. Wireless (application protocol or broadband systems) g. Other, please specify: _______________________ h. Not applicable 28. How do you compare ATCS's communications to your communications of regular traffic signals? a. More problems with ATCS communications b. Similar to communications of regular traffic signals c. Fewer problems with ATCS communications
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89 Other 29. Which of the following traffic control management systems is integrated in your ATCS? (Specify all that apply.) a. ACTRA b. I2 (Icons) c. MIST d. Other, please specify: __________________________ e. We do not use any traffic control management system f. Our ATCS is not integrated with our traffic control management system (specify which one __________) because ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 30. What is the predominant design speed on the network where your ATCS is deployed? a. Less than 30 mph b. Between 30 mph and 45 mph c. More than 45 mph d. Combination of ____ and ____and____ 31. Is your ATCS able to report malfunctions and other diagnostics of its hardware and software components? a. Yes b. No c. Generally yes, but it does not report on _______________________________________ 32. Do you find traffic metrics (traffic flows, level of service, degree of saturation, etc.) reported by your ATCS useful for other traffic engineering purposes? a. Yes, please specify: _______________________________________________________ b. No Section III: Institutional Issues Training 33. What is the best estimate of the level of effort, by vendor/consultant, to train your staff to operate the ATCS: Person-days _____? 34. Was the training provided by vendor/consultant adequate? If not, what was the major reason for inadequacy? a. Yes, the training was adequate b. No, vendor/consultant did not have enough expertise c. No, there was not enough interest for the training at our agency d. No, vendor/consultant was not interested in providing the training e. No, training was too expensive f. No, because (please specify): _______________________________________
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90 35. How understandable are working principles of your ATCS to you and your colleagues? a. Very easy b. Easy c. OK d. Difficult e. Very difficult 36. Where does expertise come from to operate/maintain your ATCS deployment currently? a. In-house expertise b. We contract out c. Combination of a. and b., please describe: _________________________________________________________________________________________ 37. Is your agency willing to improve in-house expertise to fully utilize your ATCS potential? If not, what are major obstacles to obtain such expertise? (Check all that apply.) a. Yes, we would like to get enough expertise to fully operate ATCS in-house b. No, we do not have enough staff c. No, cost of such training program would be prohibitively expensive d. No, there is not enough interest for ATCS at our agency e. No, the ATCS does not deserve that much attention--only small % of signals is under ATCS f. No, because (please specify): _____________________________________________ Operations 38. Do you have enough staff to operate and maintain the ATCS to its fullest potential? a. Yes b. No--how much more do you need and what type? _________________________________________________________________________________________ 39. Is your annual budget for operations and maintenance of traffic signals large enough to cover expenses for your ATCS to its fullest potential? a. Yes b. No 40. How do you perceive operations of your ATCS (hardware, communications, and software)? a. Much more demanding than operations of regular traffic signals b. More demanding than operations of regular traffic signals c. Same as operations of regular traffic signals d. Less demanding than operations of regular traffic signals e. Much less demanding than operations of regular traffic signals
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91 41. What is the best estimate of the level of effort, by the vendor/consultant, to make the ATCS operational: Person-days _____? 42. How would you characterize technical support by your ATCS vendor for your deployment? a. Very good b. Good c. Neutral d. Poor e. Very poor 43. What are the major problems with the technical support for your ATCS? (Check all that apply.) a. No local consultants to provide technical support b. Technical support is too expensive c. Vendor providing technical support does not have enough expertise on our ATCS d. Other, please specify: _____________________________________________ e. Not applicable--no problems with technical support 44. What are the major traffic operation features that your ATCS handles well (explain why, in your opinion)? _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ 45. What are the major traffic operation features that your ATCS does NOT handle well (explain why not, in your opinion)? _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ Maintenance 46. How do you perceive maintenance of your ATCS (hardware, communications, and software)? a. Much more demanding than maintenance of regular traffic signals b. More demanding than maintenance of regular traffic signals c. Same as maintenance of regular traffic signals d. Less demanding than maintenance of regular traffic signals e. Much less demanding than maintenance of regular traffic signals 47. Please describe any additional maintenance required to effectively operate an ATCS? _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ 48. Which component of your ATCS deployment is the most challenging to maintain and why? a. Detection, because _____________________________________________________ b. Communication, because ________________________________________________ c. Hardware, because _____________________________________________________
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92 d. Software, because ______________________________________________________ e. Licensing, because _____________________________________________________ f. Other, please specify: ___________________________________________________ 49. Is there any other institutional issue that you would like to report? _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ Section IV: Implementation Benefits & Costs Costs 50. Please characterize pricing of licensing requirements for further expansion of your ATCS? a. Prohibitively expensive b. Expensive c. Neutral d. Affordable e. Inexpensive f. Not applicable Please justify your response _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ 51. Please specify the total ATCS installation costs (or the best estimate): $___________ (Do not include intersection upgrade or similar costs.) 52. What percentage of your typical annual budget would you estimate is spent on physical maintenance of your ATCS deployment? __________(Do not include addition of new signalized intersections or similar costs.) 53. What are your best estimates of per-intersection annual costs of maintaining optimal signal timings (e.g., consulting, hardware, and software costs) for: a. ATCS deployment $ ________ b. Non-ATCS deployment $ ________ Evaluation 54. How was ATCS performance evaluated? a. In-house b. By an independent evaluator c. Not applicable--there was no evaluation
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93 55. What type of evaluation study was conducted? (Check all that apply.) a. Field evaluation b. Evaluation through microsimulation c. "Before ATCS and after ATCS" study d. "ATCS On and ATCS Off" study--(TOD plans operate when ATCS is turned off) e. Not applicable 56. Which performance measures were collected in the evaluation study? (Check all that apply.) a. Arterial travel time/delay b. Number of stops c. Intersection delay d. Queue lengths e. Average speeds f. Others, please specify: _______________________________________________ g. Not applicable 57. For which of these performance measures was ATCS shown to be significantly better than conventional traffic control? (Check all that apply.) a. Arterial travel time/delay b. Number of stops c. Intersection delay d. Queue lengths e. Average speeds f. Others, please specify: _______________________________________________ g. Not applicable 58. Based on your ATCS evaluation study--how does ATCS compare to previous traffic control? a. ATCS is much better b. ATCS is better c. Neutral d. Previous traffic control was better e. Previous traffic control was much better f. Not applicable
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94 Benefits 59. If the corridors on which the ATCS operates experience over saturation, how would you rate the operation of the ATCS in response to these traffic conditions? a. ATCS prevents or eliminates oversaturation b. ATCS eliminates or reduces the extent of the periods of oversaturation c. ATCS adversely affects the traffic conditions during periods of oversaturation d. Other:_____________________________________________________________ f. Oversaturation is very rare on the corridors operated by our ATCS 60. Based on your performance measures, when are ATCS operations proven to be the most effective? a. Peak periods b. Off-peak periods c. Shoulders of peak periods d. Other: ____________________________________________________________ 61. Has the level of performance of ATCS been sustained since its installation? a. Yes b. No; why not? Any specific reason? ________________________________________ 62. Are there any other costs or benefits related to ATCS deployment that you would like to report? a. Benefits ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ b. Costs ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Public Perception 63. How effective was a public education campaign conducted by your agency along with your ATCS deployment? a. Very effective b. Somewhat effective c. Neutral d. Not very effective e. Not effective f. Not applicable--there was no public education campaign 64. Are the results of public perception survey supportive of the ATCS? a. Clearly supportive b. Somewhat supportive
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95 c. Neutral d. Somewhat not supportive e. Not supportive f. Not applicable--there was no public perception survey Section V: Final Comments 65. What were the biggest surprises in your early ATCS deployment? a. Good surprises__________________________________________________________ b. Bad surprises __________________________________________________________ 66. Would you install the same ATCS again in another location? If not, why not? (Check all that apply.) a. Yes, we would probably install the same ATCS again b. No, other ATCSs seem to work better c. No, installation costs are too high d. No, operations and maintenance costs are too high e. No, we do not have enough expertise within the agency f. No, technical support from vendor is weak g. No, ATCS deployment is not necessary--we did not see expected benefits h. No, because (please specify): _____________________________________________ 67. In hindsight, what would you have done differently during the implementation of your ATCS? _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ 68. Do you have an evaluation case study of your ATCS that you would be willing to share with us? If you answer yes, the consul- tant will contact you via e-mail to arrange delivery and potential further interviews regarding the case study. a. Yes b. No 69. Do you have any other information that you believe would be helpful to this study? If so, please indicate it in the blank provided below: _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ Thank you for your help in completing this survey. Your responses will help provide insights into how to better understand ATCS. If you have any questions regarding the survey, please contact Aleksandar Stevanovic, email@example.com, 801-671-2868. You can mail any documentation that you might feel will be helpful to this study to the following address: Aleksandar Stevanovic, 1192 University Village, Salt Lake City, UT 84108.