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9 For very important open-ended questions, whose answers a major emphasis on the training, operations, and mainte- represented lessons learned on a certain subject, most of nance of ATCSs. Chapter five covers system requirements, the responses were summarized in tabular format. Along which are necessary for proper operations of ATCSs. The with the data extracted from surveys, existing literature was chapter describes ATCS needs for traffic detection, hardware, used as material in the report. software, and communications and how those needs are per- ceived by ATCS users. Chapter six covers costs and benefits from ATCS implementations. Chapter seven provides lessons REPORT ORGANIZATION learned from various ATCS users' perspectives. Finally, chap- ter eight summarizes the information presented in previous This report consists of eight chapters. The first chapter defines chapters and offers conclusions that may help agencies inter- an ATCS, provides a short history of the ATCS, and covers ested in deployments. Separate lists of references and acronyms scope, objectives, and study methodology. Chapter two precede three appendices. Appendix A presents working prin- deals with the operational background of the interviewed agen- ciples of ten major ATCSs widely deployed in the United States cies and environments in which their ATCSs work. Chap- and around the world. This appendix is based primarily on ter three summarizes some of the working principles of major input from ATCS developers and vendors, and a comprehen- ATCSs deployed worldwide as well as their hardware and sive ATCS literature review. Appendix B contains the survey software requirements and operational benefits. Chapter four questionnaire. Appendix C provides an ATCS bibliography, covers institutional aspects of ATCS implementations, with categorized based on ATCSs described in the study.