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At Taipei Metro, the quality management system changes can take place at the policy level or can be plan is reviewed annually by a high-level committee. simple modifications to company goals, but in any In addition, unit heads review data when determining case the desired result is continual improvement in annual budget requests. overall organizational management processes. Course corrections can also provide an opportu- From time to time, performance indicators are nity to re-evaluate performance measures to make changed at KMB. For example, a fleet reliability indi- sure that the best measure is being used. RapidKL cator was changed from "per number of trips" basis to shared an example of this type of change: They began a "per kilometer" basis to provide a more consistent tracking bus driver performance based on "number of measurement. In evaluation of performance, trend trips completed," with the intent that corrective action improvement from year to year is viewed as more could be identified if a bus driver did not maintain the important than measurement of absolute numbers or schedule. However, this led to some bus drivers rush- target achievement. According to senior operations ing past stops, without picking up passengers, as a management, this reflects an emphasis on continual means of ensuring they met the daily trip quota. In quality improvement--targets are maintained as goals response, RapidKL changed the performance mea- and their achievement pursued; however, it is consid- sure to "revenue per day," which created an incen- ered more important that their performance indicator tive for drivers to pick up more passengers. This trends show improvement from year to year. example highlights the importance of bringing in qualitative elements into performance evaluation. Managing solely by numbers can result in nonfa- CONCLUSION vorable outcomes. Systems in all four cities visited appear to follow There are many benefits to using performance a common model: establish goals and objectives, information to identify course corrections. Simply stated, by tracking performance, an agency can iden- develop strategies for meeting those objectives, tify and remedy a problem. For example, MTR uses define performance criteria and targets, measure performance-based management to clearly commu- progress, and develop inputs for future objectives. nicate business values, keep employees accountable, At all systems, customer satisfaction was at the top and provide the best service to its customers. Taipei of the priorities. This objective is closely aligned Metro uses performance measurement to motivate with regulatory desires, as well as profitability. staff to adjust their behavior throughout the year to Most of the systems integrated other standards sustain high levels of agency performance; the better such as ISO and benchmarking as a means to establish their department performs, the higher their salary. measures, but it was not always clear how these stan- Based on the experience of the agencies visited dards were integrated with internal strategies or those during the ITSP study mission, the following char- set by government regulators. In addition, most of the acteristics support the effective use of performance performance targets were set based on prior year per- information to guide course corrections: formance rather than targets responding to specific goals and objectives. This would indicate that for most Link performance measures back to strategic systems, continuous improvement, while somewhat goals and objectives, vague, is a fundamental goal but not always clearly Have the support of senior management, articulated in an organization's strategies. Regularly schedule meetings to evaluate per- formance, Focus on a limited number of measures, APPENDIX A--STUDY MISSION Communicate the results internally and exter- TEAM MEMBERS nally, (Affiliations listed were current at the time of the Present course corrections in a motivational study mission.) way, rather than in a punitive way, and Include qualitative narrative to accompany the Mark R. Aesch, (Team Leader), Chief Executive metrics. Officer, Rochester Genesee Regional Transporta- tion Authority, Rochester, NY The data collected can be used to develop longer Jerry R. Benson, Ph.D., Chief Operating Officer, term strategies needed to improve the business. These Utah Transit Authority, Salt Lake City, UT 34