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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 648 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Mixing and Compaction Temperatures of Asphalt Binders in Hot-Mix Asphalt

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Randell H. Iwasaki, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of February 2010.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 648 Mixing and Compaction Temperatures of Asphalt Binders in Hot-Mix Asphalt Randy C. West Donald E. Watson Pamela A. Turner NATIONAL CENTER FOR ASPHALT TECHNOLOGY Auburn, AL John R. Casola MALVERN INSTRUMENTS INC. Westborough, MA Subscriber Categories Materials Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 648 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 9-39 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN 978-0-309-11825-5 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2010923478 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT INFORMATION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed research directly to those who are in a position to use them. or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 648 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Edward T. Harrigan, Senior Program Officer Melanie Adcock, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Margaret B. Hagood, Editor Andra Briere, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 09-39 PANEL Field of Materials and Construction--Area of Bituminous Materials Rita B. Leahy, Asphalt Pavement Association of California, Sacramento, CA (Chair) John H. Tenison, AMEC Earth & Environmental, Albuquerque, NM Paul J. Hoelscher, Texas DOT, Abilene, TX Gayle N. King, GHK, Inc., The Woodlands, TX Michael W. Longshaw, Kansas DOT, El Dorado, KS Louay N. Mohammad, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA Allen H. Myers, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort, KY Nelio J. Rodrigues, Connecticut DOT, Rocky Hill, CT John D'Angelo, FHWA Liaison Nelson H. Gibson, FHWA Liaison Frederick Hejl, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 9-39 by the National Center for Asphalt Technology, Auburn University. Randy C. West, Director, was the principal investigator and Donald E. Watson, Lead Research Engineer at the National Center for Asphalt Technology, was the co-principal investigator. John Casola, Product Sales Manager at Malvern Instruments, and Pamela Turner, Assistant Research Engineer at the National Center for Asphalt Technology, were key contributors to the research and preparation of this report. The authors thank Fred Mazzeo of Malvern Instruments for providing rheological testing and analysis and Saeed Maghsoodloo, Auburn University, for experimental design and statistical analysis. The authors thank Jason Moore and all of the staff of the National Center for Asphalt Technology who worked on this project. The authors thank the Federal Highway Administration Turner- Fairbank Highway Research Center for binder testing and the asphalt binder suppliers who provided mate- rials and information for this project.

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FOREWORD By Edward Harrigan Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report identifies improved test methods for determining laboratory mixing and compaction temperatures of modified and unmodified asphalt binders. The report will be of immediate interest to materials engineers in state highway agencies and the hot-mix asphalt (HMA) construction industry. The Asphalt Institute (AI) procedure for determining mixing and compaction tempera- tures of asphalt binders was developed for penetration- and viscosity-graded asphalt cements used in the United States until the 1990s. Since that time, the use of modified, performance-graded asphalt binders in HMA paving has increased significantly, especially on high-volume traffic routes. The AI procedure often requires heating of modified binders to unrealistically high temperatures that can potentially damage the asphalt binder. To over- come this problem, highway agencies usually rely on the modifier suppliers to recommend mixing and compaction temperatures, a circumstance that can produce mixed results. The objective of this research was to identify or develop a simple, rapid, and accurate lab- oratory procedure--suitable for routine use--for determining the mixing and compaction temperatures of both unmodified and modified asphalt binder. The research was performed by the National Center for Asphalt Technology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama with the support of Malvern Instruments Inc., Westborough, Massachusetts. In the course of the research, the project team evaluated existing and emerging methods to determine temperatures that will provide satisfactory aggregate coating during laboratory mix- ing and appropriate laboratory specimen compaction without degrading the asphalt binder and identified two improved, equally effective test methods. These tests, termed (1) the phase angle method and (2) the steady shear flow viscosity (SSFV) method, provide reasonable, consistent mixing and compaction temperatures that correlate well with the results of HMA coating, workability, and compactability tests for both binder types. The phase angle and SSFV mea- surements are made with the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), already widely used in asphalt laboratories for measuring binder stiffnesses over a range of temperatures and frequencies. This report includes four appendices as follows: Appendix A: Responses of Survey on Agency Specifications Regarding Mixing and Com- paction Temperatures; Appendix B: Mix Design Data for Base Mix and Other Compaction Experiment Mixes; Appendix C: Draft AASHTO Standard for Steady Shear Flow and Phase Angle Methods; and Appendix D: Statistical Analyses of the Steady Shear Flow and Phase Angle Methods. The draft standard methods of test are under consideration for possible adoption by the AASHTO Highway Subcommittee on Materials.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 5 Chapter 1 Background 5 Introduction 5 Literature Search 5 A Note on Units of Viscosity 6 Background on the Development of Mixing and Compaction Temperature Criteria 8 Effect of Temperature on Degradation of Asphalt Binders 9 Mixing and Compaction Temperatures for Modified Asphalt Binders 10 Survey of Current Practices for Determining Mixing and Compaction Temperatures 13 Recent Research on Proposed New Methods for Determining Mixing and Compaction Temperatures 13 Zero Shear Viscosity 14 Extrapolated High Shear Rate Viscosity 14 Steady Shear Flow 14 Shear Rate Dependency 15 Extensional Viscosity 15 Equivalent Mixture Properties 15 Workability 16 Shear Rates During Mixing and Compaction 19 Summary of Key Findings from the Literature Review 20 Chapter 2 Research Approach 20 Experimental Plan 20 Approach 20 Overview of the Experimental Research Plan 22 Materials 22 Organization of the Test Plan 23 Part 1: Binder Tests 23 Part 2: Mixture Tests 24 Description of Tests 24 Binder Tests 30 Mixture Tests 31 Summary of Research Plan 33 Chapter 3 Findings and Applications 33 Experimental Results 33 Binder Testing 33 Binder Grading 33 High Shear Rate Viscosity Method 33 Steady Shear Flow Method

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33 Phase Angle Method 34 SEP Tests 37 Results of Re-Graded Binders 37 MSCR Tests 37 Analysis of Binder Degradation 43 Mixture Testing 43 Mixture Coating Tests 45 Mixture Coating Tests with Incompletely Dried Aggregate 46 Workability Tests 47 Compaction Tests 53 Indirect Tensile Creep Compliance and Strength 59 Correlation of Mixing and Compaction Temperatures 66 Comparison of SSF and Phase Angle Methods 68 Validation Experiment Results and Analysis 72 Chapter 4 Conclusions and Recommendations 72 Summary of Key Findings 73 Recommendation of a New Method for Determining Mixing and Compaction Temperatures 73 Recommendations for Further Work 73 Independent Validation 74 Refinement of the SSF and Phase Angle Methods 74 Interlaboratory Studies 74 Training 76 References A-1 Appendix A Responses of Survey on Agency Specifications Regarding Mixing and Compaction Temperatures B-1 Appendix B Mix Design Data for Base Mix and Other Compaction Experiment Mixes C-1 Appendix C Draft AASHTO Standard for Steady Shear Flow and Phase Angle Methods D-1 Appendix D Statistical Analyses of the Steady Shear Flow and Phase Angle Methods