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34 Table 8. True grades of the research binders as determined by NCAT. Producer's Grade Binder Reported Binder NCAT results Confirmed? ID Grade True Grade Yes/No Comments M PG 82-22 85.5 -19.5 No Failed BBR N PG 82-22 84.3 -25.5 Yes G PG 76-22 82.5 -24.2 No Met higher grade H PG 76-22 78.3 -26.1 Yes C PG 70-34 75.1 -38.9 Yes I PG 70-28 71.8 -29.2 Yes B PG 64-40 69.3 -37.3 No Failed BBR F PG 64-22 67.8 -21.3 No Failed DTT O PG 64-28 65.6 -29.7 Yes K PG 64-16 65.3 -13.0 No Failed BBR & DTT J PG 64-16 64.3 -20.7 Yes E PG 58-34 60.9 -33.1 No Failed BBR D PG 58-28 60.3 -26.0 No Failed DTT some of the mixing and compaction temperatures from the ducer's recommended mixing temperature range for each Phase Angle method are lower and some are higher than from respective binder was determined and opacity was inter- the equiviscous method. polated at this temperature. This, in effect, normalized the opacity data to an appropriate reference temperature for each binder. These opacity values were then ranked and SEP Tests graphed in Figure 19. Table 12 shows a summary of the opacity results from the It can be observed from the SEP opacity data there is no SEP tests on the binders. Although these data show that emis- apparent link between opacity and binder high grade, binder sions increase with higher temperatures, the amount and rate low grade, grade spread, or whether the binder is modified. of emissions increase differs among the binders. Even binders from the same crude source--such as Binders B, In order to properly compare the SEP opacity results for C, and E, which were refined from the same Canadian the binders in the experiment, the midpoint of the pro- crude--had markedly different opacity results. This finding Table 9. Mixing and compaction temperatures from the high shear rate viscosity method. Mixing Temperature F (C) Compaction Temperature F (C) Binder Equiviscous High Shear Rate Equiviscous High Shear Rate ID True Grade Method Viscosity Method Viscosity M 85.5 -19.5 372 (189) 363 (184) 343 (173) 336 (169) N 84.3 -25.5 433 (223) 433 (223) 401 (205) 401 (205) G 82.5 -24.2 379 (193) 372 (189) 352 (178) 349 (176) H 78.3 -26.1 365 (185) 363 (184) 338 (170) 338 (170) C 75.1 -38.7 388 (198) 385 (196) 355 (179) 352 (178) I 71.8 -29.2 333 (167) 333 (167) 311 (155) 311 (155) B 69.3 -37.3 354 (179) 352 (178) 325 (163) 325 (163) F 67.8 -21.3 320 (160) 318 (159) 298 (148) 297 (147) O 65.6 -29.7 318 (159) 318 (159) 293 (145) 297 (147) K 65.3 -13.0 295 (146) 295 (146) 271 (132) 275 (135) J 64.3 -20.7 295 (146) 295 (146) 275 (135) 273 (134) E 60.9 -33.1 293 (145) 293 (145) 273 (134) 297 (147) D 60.3 -31.7 295 (146) 297 (147) 275 (135) 279 (137)

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35 Table 10. Mixing and compaction temperatures from the steady shear viscosity method. Mixing Temperature F (C) Compaction Temperature F (C) Binder Equiviscous Steady Shear Equiviscous Steady Shear ID True Grade Method Flow Viscosity Method Flow Viscosity M 85.5 -19.5 372 (189) 296 (147) 343 (173) 275 (135) N 84.3 -25.5 433 (223) 337 (169) 401 (205) 311 (155) G 82.5 -24.2 379 (193) 340 (171) 352 (178) 312 (156) H 78.3 -26.1 365 (185) 333 (167) 338 (170) 304 (151) C 75.1 -38.7 388 (198) 320 (160) 355 (179) 291 (144) I 71.8 -29.2 333 (167) 316 (158) 311 (155) 289 (143) B 69.3 -37.3 354 (179) 325 (163) 325 (163) 295 (146) F 67.8 -21.3 320 (160) 309 (154) 298 (148) 281 (138) O 65.6 -29.7 318 (159) 309 (154) 293 (145) 280 (138) K 65.3 -13.0 295 (146) 280 (138) 271 (132) 257 (125) J 64.3 -20.7 295 (146) 289 (143) 275 (135) 263 (128) E 60.9 -33.1 293 (145) 293 (145) 273 (134) 269 (132) D 60.3 -31.7 295 (146) 289 (143) 275 (135) 262 (128) does not agree with the conclusion from Stroup-Gardiner a relationship between mass loss and binder high grade, low and Lange (31). Another example is the set of binders refined grade, grade spread, modified versus unmodified, or crude from the blend of Alaskan slope and Canadian crudes, source. D and I. These two binders also have substantially differ- Mass loss and opacity are not strongly correlated, as shown ent opacity results at the producer's recommended mixing in Figure 20. The trend shows that higher mass loss generally temperature. corresponds to higher opacity, but the relationship is not suit- Another measurement from the SEP test is the mass loss able to use one measurement to predict the other. For some of the binders due to exposure to high temperatures. A sum- binder samples, mass loss may include the loss of molecular mary of the mass loss results are shown in Table 13. Mass water rather than purely a loss of volatile organic components loss also increased with higher SEP test temperatures for all that would be better associated with opacity and changes in of the binders. As with opacity, there does not appear to be physical properties of the binder. Table 11. Mixing and compaction temperatures from the Phase Angle Method. Mixing Temp. F (C) Compaction Temp. F (C) Freq. at Phase Phase Equiviscous Equiviscous Binder True =86 Angle Angle Method Method ID Grade T=80C Method Method M 85.5 -19.5 0.07 372 (189) 337 (169) 343 (173) 310 (154) N 84.3 -25.5 0.03 433 (223) 341 (172) 401 (205) 313 (156) G 82.5 -24.2 0.03 379 (193) 341 (172) 352 (178) 313 (156) H 78.3 -26.1 0.22 365 (185) 332 (167) 338 (170) 305 (152) C 75.1 -38.7 0.21 388 (198) 332 (167) 355 (179) 306 (152) I 71.8 -29.2 2.98 333 (167) 320 (160) 311 (155) 296 (147) B 69.3 -37.3 1.10 354 (179) 325 (163) 325 (163) 300 (149) F 67.8 -21.3 75.00 320 (160) 307 (153) 298 (148) 285 (141) O 65.6 -29.7 21.12 318 (159) 312 (156) 293 (145) 289 (143) K 65.3 -13.0 800 295 (146) 297 (147) 271 (132) 277 (136) J 64.3 -20.7 580 295 (146) 298 (148) 275 (135) 278 (137) E 60.9 -33.1 37.85 293 (145) 309 (154) 273 (134) 287 (142) D 60.3 -31.7 122.56 295 (146) 305 (152) 275 (135) 283 (139)

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36 Table 12. Opacity results from SEP test. Avg. opacity (%) at test temp. Std. dev. of opacity at test temp. True 130C 150C 170C 190C 130C 150C 170C 190C ID Grade 266F 302F 338F 374F 266F 302F 338F 374F M 85.5 -19.5 0.28 4.80 4.80 11.63 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.13 N 84.3 -25.5 0.35 0.39 0.42 0.79 0.09 0.05 0.04 0.05 G 82.5 -24.2 0.00 1.16 1.45 2.13 0.14 0.06 0.05 0.06 H 78.3 -26.1 0.22 2.83 5.27 13.21 0.11 0.08 0.4 0.78 C 75.1 -38.7 3.11 8.68 8.68 16.46 0.12 0.11 0.11 0.68 I 71.8 -29.2 0.23 4.41 10.21 16.62 0.08 0.22 0.54 1.09 B 69.3 -37.3 0.51 1.39 4.92 8.45 0.08 0.08 0.31 0.61 F 67.8 -21.3 0.00 1.09 1.16 2.12 0.09 0.07 0.05 0.05 O 65.6 -29.7 0.26 0.14 5.35 11.84 0.12 0.17 0.34 0.76 K 65.3 -13.0 0.00 3.17 7.02 19.26 0.09 0.06 0.26 0.48 J 64.3 -20.7 0.22 3.37 8.94 12.94 0.09 0.07 0.14 0.36 E 60.9 -33.1 0.55 2.48 8.50 27.40 0.08 0.12 0.56 0.87 D 60.3 -31.7 0.07 2.53 5.23 7.53 0.05 0.11 0.24 0.64 10.0 9.0 8.0 7.0 Opacity % 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 N F E K G M O B D H J C I Figure 19. Ranked opacity results after normalizing to the midpoint of the producer's recommended mixing temperature. Table 13. Mass loss results from SEP Test. Avg. Mass Loss (%) Std. Dev. of Mass Loss (%) True 130C 150C 170C 190C 130C 150C 170C 190C ID Grade 266F 302F 338F 374F 266F 302F 338F 374F M 85.5 -19.5 0.09 0.18 0.11 0.43 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.02 N 84.3 -25.5 0.31 0.55 1.99 2.76 0.09 0.06 0.06 0.06 G 82.5 -24.2 0.01 0.11 0.15 0.35 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.02 H 78.3 -26.1 0.02 0.23 0.23 0.20 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 C 75.1 -38.7 0.12 0.01 0.12 1.07 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.05 I 71.8 -29.2 0.12 0.23 0.63 1.09 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.04 B 69.3 -37.3 0.31 0.01 0.34 0.95 0.07 0.02 0.04 0.05 F 67.8 -21.3 0.12 0.09 0.06 0.09 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.02 O 65.6 -29.7 0.23 0.41 0.65 0.73 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.03 K 65.3 -13.0 0.06 0.20 0.20 0.51 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.03 J 64.3 -20.7 0.00 0.00 0.69 1.16 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.07 E 60.9 -33.1 0.00 0.12 0.56 1.11 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.06 D 60.3 -31.7 0.00 0.28 0.39 1.07 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.05