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10 CHAPTER THREE EXISTING AVIATION WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES To meet the workforce development needs of its aviation of basic orientations to the business and introductory, but industry employers, several workforce development practices necessary, skills training. have been developed using in-house resources, partnering with local educational institutions, or contracting with professional In private-sector firms, particularly those whose core busi- organizations. In addition, academic institutions at the high ness is analytical in nature, in-house academic-style seminar school, undergraduate, and graduate levels have developed forums are often held. Frequently held during lunch hours, but programs to prepare individuals to be successful professionals also during retreat-style events, these forums typically involve in the aviation industry. This report focuses on two types a member of the organization presenting on a topic of interest of workforce development practices: training of the existing (see Figure 4). workforce and educating the future workforce. To enhance the workforce development experience, firms The workforce development needs for the aviation industry will often select a certain number of current employees for vary by employment level. Entry-level employees require attendance in rotation programs. Within such programs, knowledge of technical skills particular to their tasks, whereas employees spend a short amount of time, often between 1 management-level employees require more strategic skills and 3 months, working within a particular sector of the orga- common to most managerial positions. To this end, a number nization, rotating to additional sectors over the course of the of workforce development practices are described here. entire program, typically 1 to 3 years. Such programs are Training programs for the existing workforce include: intended to give employees a more comprehensive perspec- tive on the nature of the organization's business, provide the · Basic skills and communications training programs employee with a more comprehensive skill set, and ulti- · Technical skills training programs mately contribute to preparing the employee for management- · Business, management, and strategic planning skills level responsibilities within the organization. · Executive-level certification. Figure 5 shows that most airports contacted for this study Education and training programs for the future workforce claim to have some kind of formal workforce development include: programs, whether it be in-house training, outsourced training, or educational programs. General aviation airports are typi- · Academic degree programs cally less apt to have such programs. Clear in the discussions, · Internships and cooperative opportunities · Attendance and participation in industry professional however, was the impression that airports equate workforce organization activities. development with employee training. No airports partici- pating in this study explicitly revealed any other elements of Integrated programs are: formal workforce development. · Integrated workforce development and academic pro- Figure 6 illustrates the most common workforce devel- grams and opment programs at airports by subject matter. Nearly all of · Industrial advisory committees. the airports queried and/or interviewed reported providing formal "Security Identification Display Area (SIDA)" train- There are a number of practices, using internal resources, ing, as required by the FAA for FAR Part 139 certified air- or external programs developed by professional organizations ports, most of whom perform such training using in-house to train, educate, and otherwise develop the existing workforce resources. (Airports serving commercial service air carri- at an aviation industry organization. ers must be compliant with Federal Aviation Regulations Part 139, Certification of Airports. Although not actively IN-HOUSE PROGRAMS serving commercial air carriers, many general aviation air- ports choose to be FAR Part 139 compliant, in whole or in For most entry-level employees, a certain level of training part.) Figure 7 illustrates that many airports have training is performed internally at aviation organizations in both the programs for fundamental airport skills requirements such public and private sectors. This training is often in the form as airfield operations and driver training, but have fewer