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11 forums, participation in industry committees, and networking with other industry professionals. Participation in any of the following organizations is typi- cally open to any members of the industry. Organizations that provide workforce development programs highlighted in this synthesis include: American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE) National Air Transport Association (NATA) National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) International Air Transport Association (IATA) TRB ACINA. FIGURE 4 In-house seminars provide employees with the opportunity to learn among themselves, and share new ideas, techniques, and thoughts on the future of the industry. In addition, a number of academic institutions that have focused on educational programs directly relevant to the aviation industry are highlighted. workforce development programs for higher-level adminis- American Association of Airport Executives trative and strategic skills such as marketing, finance, engi- neering, planning, and external relations. The AAAE claims to be the world's largest provider of inter- active training and workforce development programs for the ORGANIZATIONS PROVIDING WORKFORCE airport industry (10). The AAAE has been in existence since DEVELOPMENT RESOURCES 1928 with the mission of supporting the airport industry through representation in Washington, D.C. As part of There are a number of professional organizations, research its membership, the Association has nearly 3,000 airport societies, and academic institutions that offer a wide range professionals representing more than 850 civil-use airports. of workforce development programs, ranging from opera- A core function of the AAAE is to provide workforce devel- tional training to management-level training. In addition, opment programs. The organization does so through a variety these organizations offer the opportunity for workforce devel- of program formats ranging from basic airport familiarization opment through formal academic education programs, research to executive-level management training for current aviation FIGURE 5 Airports with formal workforce development programs.

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12 FIGURE 6 Airport workforce development programs by subject (percentage is of those participating in the research for this synthesis). professionals, as well as educational programs for the future employment. Once installed (hardware and software pack- workforce. ages are installed by the AAAE at the airport), the IET is available for use 24 hours a day. Common topics offered include: Interactive Employee Training Part 139 compliance The AAAE Interactive Employee Training Program (IET) SIDA training is a computer-based series of training programs designed to Driver training provide on-site training to airport staff, at their airports of Basic airport security awareness Customer service Runway incursion prevention. The AAAE will also develop custom programs for airports upon request. All IET program courses are enhanced with custom-created digital video from the specific airport where the program will be installed. The AAAE claims that more than 1.1 million airport and vendor employees have trained on IET systems at more than 82 airports nationwide. eCISTM eCISTM (Electronic Computer Instructional System and Training Management) is AAAE's web-based, open archi- tecture learning management system. The system is expand- able and able to accommodate additional training courses as FIGURE 7 AAAE Academic Relations Committee hosts needed by the airport or organization. Automated testing, a professional development sessions at annual industry standard eCISTM feature, ensures employees are mastering conferences: Internship and Student Employment Programs. the required learning modules.

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13 ANTN Digicast Emergency Response and Family Assistance Fuel and Hazardous Materials Safety Workshop The ANTN Digicast program is a large collection of web- Terminal Operations Efficiency. accessible digital videos covering a wide variety of topics of interest to airports. Digicast emphasizes current events, such as updates to regulations, new technologies, or the latest AAAE Operations and Management Certification strategies to manage and operate airports, but also includes a series of videos covering topics fundamental to airports. New ACE--Airport Certified Employee Training videos are added to the Digicast library on a continuing basis. The AAAE also offers specialized employee training in four ANTN Digicast videos may be easily integrated into specific areas through its Airport Certified Employee (ACE) in-house training programs. The Digicast service has the training program. This program is designed for full-time ability to keep records of the videos viewed by members of employees who require specialized training, over and above the airport's workforce. The ANTN Digicast is available to typical familiarization training, but not to the level of air- airports as a subscription service. port management certification and accreditation. Each ACE program is delivered as a 3- to 5-day course, which may be On-Site and AAAE Headquarters-Based taken as a self-study course or an on-site course given at the Training Programs airport. The four disciplines currently offered through the ACE program are: The AAAE offers on-site or AAAE headquarters-based train- ing programs to airports led by industry-certified experts. These Airfield Operations: Focusing on FAR Part 139 regula- programs typically are comprised of 1- to 5-day workshops, tions, airfield familiarization, safety, planning, environ- held at the airport, for class enrollments typically ranging from mental issues (foreign object debris, wildlife, hazmat, 10 to 50 individuals. Topics have included: management, etc.). Airfield Lighting Maintenance: Focusing on airfield Accident/Incident Report Writing electrical systems, lighting requirements, navigational Advanced Airport Safety & Operations Specialist aids, and control systems. (ASOS) School Airport Security: Focusing on TSA regulations, local Airport Benchmarking and Performance Measurement security procedures, weapons detection, emergency pro- Airport Business Development cedures, and international issues. Airport Certified Employee (ACE)--Airfield Lighting Airport Communications: Focusing on aviation termi- Maintenance nology, communications technologies, dispatching, cus- Airport Certified Employee (ACE)--Communications tomer service, public information communications, and Program stress management. Airport Certified Employee (ACE)--Operations Program Airport Certified Employee (ACE)--Security Program Airport Community/Press Relations for Crisis Accredited Airport Executive (AAE) Management and Certified Member (CM) Programs Airport Customer Service Airport Driver Training & Runway Incursion The AAAE's accredited airport executive program is widely Airport Environmental Management accepted in the industry as one of the standard programs for Airport Finance developing executive-level airport professionals. Completion Airport Ground Transportation and Landside of this program requires passing comprehensive written and Management oral examinations, writing a research paper on a topic of Airport Liability Insurance & Risk Management interest to airports, and requires at least three years professional Airport Management 101 experience at an airport. Although this program is primarily an Airport Marketing individual self-study program, the AAAE offers a published Airport Pavement Management "Body of Knowledge" and "Accreditation Study Guide" to aid Airport Planning, Design, and Construction Management program participants with their studies. The AAAE also has Airport Rates, Charges, and Capital Funding a staff to help participants develop research for their written Airport Retail/Concessions and Property Management reports and has an active mentor program pairing already Airport Security Coordinator Training School accredited professionals with those in the program. Airport Strategic Planning Airport Technology Solutions In addition, a number of regional chapters of the AAAE hold Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Compliance a week-long "study course" to help prepare those in the pro- Aviation Security for Law Enforcement Officers gram for the Body of Knowledge written exam. These "AAAE Basic Airport Safety & Operations Specialist School Accreditation/Certification Academies" are typically offered Certified Member Review Course twice a year.

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14 The Body of Knowledge includes the following topics: Attendance at these conferences typically requires fees for conference registration, as well as travel and lodging History, the Regulation of Air Transportation, Airports, expenses. and the FAA The Management Functions Regional chapters of the AAAE also often hold short Management Theories, Roles, Motivation, and courses in various areas of airport management. For exam- Communication ple, the Southwest Chapter of the AAAE (SWAAAE) holds Airport Capacity and Delay an annual Airport Management Short Course. This course Air Traffic Control, Airspace, and Navigational Aids is structured to cover topics of current importance to airport Environmental Regulations management, in recent years covering topics ranging from Airport Noise and Land Use Compatibility energy management, to human resource management issues. Financial Management and Accounting National and regional workshops and short courses offered Airport Fees, Rates, & Charges by the AAAE and their regional affiliates may be found at the Capital Development and Funding for Airports AAAE website (http://www.aaae.org). Airport System Planning and Airport Master Planning Airport Layout Plans Terminal Planning, Design, and Operation Committee Participation Airport Operations and FAR Part 139--Certification Airport Security and Response to Emergencies. The AAAE also has a number of standing committees that focus on a number of topics of importance to the industry. Partici- Those who either do not have the required amount of airport pation by professionals in the industry who are dues paying experience or simply wish not to pursue full accreditation with members of the AAAE on these committees is welcomed. the AAAE have the opportunity to develop their airport man- These committees offer opportunities to address the latest agement knowledge by earning AAAE Certified Member sta- upcoming issues in their particular areas of interest. Partici- tus. Achieving CM certification is done by successfully passing pation on these committees also includes networking with the AAE Body of Knowledge written exam. other professionals in these particular areas. AAAE standing committees include: The airport management industry widely recognizes AAE or CM certification as highly recommended or required rep- Airline Economics and Air Service resentations of sufficient airport management knowledge and Airport Training experience. Often, positions of upper management at airports Environmental Services will require such certification for hiring. As such, many air- General Aviation ports provide resources, mostly in the form of allocated time, Military Relations to employees wishing to pursue these certifications Operations, Safety, and Planning Transportation Security Academic Relations. AAAE Conferences and Meetings AAAE offers educational opportunities through a wide selec- AAAE Academic Relations Activities tion of conference-style meetings are available throughout the country on a variety of topics. Speakers at these conferences The AAAE's Academic Relations Committee in particular is are typically other airport professionals who have had recent active in workforce development, particularly working with experiences and industry consultants with particular expertise academic institutions and the aviation industry. in certain topics of interest. Examples of recent meeting topics include: Members of the committee include airport executives and academic faculty. The purpose of the committee is to Aircraft and Airfield Deicing and Stormwater Issues develop programs that provide airport management access to Basic Airport Safety and Operations Safety Specialist university students, as well as encourage students to become School involved in learning more about the airport management Disadvantaged Business Enterprises industry. Airfield Construction Management Workshop Airport Pavement Maintenance and Evaluation The committee hosts sessions at annual AAAE meetings Workshop for current university students and recent graduates seeking Essentials of Airport Business Management Workshop to learn more about the airport management industry and net- Airport Geographic Information Systems Workshop work with current airport management professionals. Session Accident and Incident Investigation Workshop topics have included Professional Networking and Profes- Airports Energy Efficiency Forum sional Behavior, the basics for entering the airport manage- Airport Parking and Landside Management Workshop. ment profession.

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15 AAAE University Student Chapters PLST is available for a nominal annual subscription fee and per student enrollment. The AAAE supports a number of student chapters at several of the nation's colleges and universities. These chapters are made PLST topics include: up of graduate and undergraduate students with an interest in a career in airport management or related field. Network- Introduction to Ground Servicing ing with these chapters provides one of the best first steps for Safety developing the future workforce. Internship programs, student Fuel Servicing projects, and other educational opportunities are often coordi- Towing Procedures nated through these chapters (see Figure 8). A list of student Fuel Farm Management chapters may be found by contacting the AAAE. Customer Service Fire Safety National Air Transportation Association Aviation Security. NATA is an aviation industry professional organization whose The PLST program is offered on-line using any Internet- mission is to be the leading national trade association rep- connected computer. resenting the business interests of general aviation service companies. NATA serves its member companies by provid- More than 900 aviation-related companies, including fixed- ing education services, as well as other benefits with the goal base operators (FBOs) and airports have used PLST to train of helping to ensure their long-term economic success (11). thousands of line service specialists across the world. The NATA PLST program may be found at the NATA Internet website at http://www.nata.aero/plst/. NATA Professional Line Service Training Through its "Safety 1st Program," NATA offers a Professional National Business Aviation Association Line Service Training (PLST) program (12). The PLST pro- gram is designed to train, both initially and recurrently, profes- The NBAA claims to be the leading professional organization sionals who perform duties on the airport ramp, including such for companies that rely on general aviation aircraft to help make skilled tasks as fueling, marshalling, and aircraft line servicing, their businesses more efficient, productive, and successful. of general aviation and commercial aircraft. The NBAA represents more than 8,000 companies with inter- ests in business/corporate aviation (5). These companies range PLST provides state-of-the-art initial and recurrent train- from aircraft manufacturers, to fuel service providers, to own- ing for line service specialists, meets 14 CFR Part 139 Sec- ers and operators of airports that accommodate business avia- tion 321 fire training requirements, is continuously updated tion activities. and expanded, and includes aircraft-specific information. The NBAA has a number of professional development pro- PLST is available anytime, anywhere, and is up-to-date with grams focused on advancing the careers of those in the busi- the latest best practices and industry standards, with interactive ness and corporate aviation industry. lessons and electronic reporting of student progress. Additional checklists and reference materials are included in the program. NBAA Professional Development Program According to the NBAA, the organization's Professional Devel- opment Program (PDP) is designed to "help individuals with the Association's Member Companies" advance their careers by preparing business aviation professionals for manage- ment roles. The PDP is a series of course curricula, deliv- ered either by the NBAA at select locations or through PDP eligible courses at a variety of colleges and private organiza- tions. Course materials are delivered in print and digital format. Since its inception in 1998, more than 5,000 person-courses have been completed. NBAA's PDP is divided into five specialized areas: Busi- ness Management, Leadership, Operations, Personnel Man- FIGURE 8 AAAE student chapters are excellent resources for agement, and Technical and Facilities Services. Typical developing the future aviation workforce. courses are 2 to 3 days in length.

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16 NBAA Certified Aviation Manager Program Airport Strategic Management Airport Terminal Design and Planning Similar to AAAE's CM program, NBAA's Certified Aviation Aviation Law Manager (CAM) program provides the opportunity for mem- Basic Airside Safety ber individuals to be officially recognized as being highly Business Continuity Planning proficient in five subject areas: Business Management, Lead- Cost Reduction Strategies ership, Operations, Personnel Management, and Technical Foundations of Airport Commercial Management and Facilities Services. Members who have completed a cer- Human Resources Management tain number of PDP courses, or have sufficient levels of edu- Leadership Development and Succession Planning cation, professional licenses, or participation at industry events Network, Fleet, and Schedule Planning such as conferences or workshops, are eligible to take a writ- Revenue Management ten exam. Achieving a certain score on the exam earns the Understanding Air Traffic Control. applicant CAM certification. In addition to taking courses on a stand-alone basis, IATA offers programs of courses that can lead to an IATA diploma. On-Demand Education IATA diplomas of relevance to the airport and aviation sup- port industry include: NBAA's On-Demand Education Program provides computer- based educational programs covering a variety of topics, Advanced Airport Operations ranging from safety to finance. Many of the courses in the Airport Strategic Management program are offered free by the NBAA, whereas others may Civil Aviation Management be purchased on a one-time-use or recurrent-access basis. People Management More information on the NBAA and its professional devel- Project Management opment programs may be found at the NBAA website: Safety Management. http://www.nbaa.org. IATA training centers are located worldwide, with a U.S. International Air Transport Association training center in Miami, Florida. In addition, on-site train- ing programs may be arranged for groups of individuals at a The International Air Transport Association (IATA) is one particular airport or aviation business. Finally, many of the of the world's leading professional organizations representing courses have been developed as self-study courses, leverag- the commercial air carrier industry. More than 230 airlines, ing information technology to facilitate information transfer representing more than 90% of the world's scheduled inter- and communication with instructors and fellow students. More national air traffic comprise the membership of IATA (13). information on IATA training programs may be found at the In addition to commercial air carriers, a number of airports IATA website: http://www.iata.org/training/. are members of IATA as well. National Academies' Transportation Research Board IATA Training Programs One of the major divisions of the National Research Coun- IATA supports the IATA Training and Development Insti- cil, TRB promotes innovation and progress in transportation tute, one of the leading providers of global aviation training through research. TRB's Aviation Group focuses on issues solutions and professional development programs. The Insti- important to the nation's aviation system (14). The Aviation tute offers courses on more than 200 topics of interest to Group is comprised of nine standing committees. management-level professionals in the aviation industry. Although many of the courses focus on topics of direct rele- vance to airline management, a good number of courses are TRB Aviation Committees directly relevant to airport management and aviation support industry. Examples of such courses include: The Aviation Group is comprised of nine standing committees: Airport Certification and Standards Intergovernmental Relations Airport Customer Service Aviation System Planning Airport Emergency Planning and Management Environmental Impacts Airport Financial Management Aviation Economics and Forecasting Airport Marketing Airport Terminals and Ground Access Airport Master Planning Airfield and Airspace Capacity and Delay Airport Operations Aircraft/Airport Compatibility Airport Safety Management Systems Light Commercial and General Aviation Airport Security Operations Aviation Security and Emergency Management.

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17 Committees enjoy participation from a wide variety of practice ment and operations. ACINA is the largest of five world- areas in industry, academia, consulting and airport operations, wide regions of the ACI (15). and are recognized as a worthwhile means of professional and technical development. ACIICAO Airport Management Professional Accreditation Program ACRP Panels Launched in 2007, the ACIICAO (International Civil Avia- TRB supports ACRP. ACRP carries out applied research tion Organization Professional Accreditation) Airport Manage- projects on a wide spectrum of topics of importance to the ment Professional Accreditation Program (AMPAP) proclaims nation's airports. TRB encourages participation in ACRP, in to be the only global professional accreditation for airport part, by joining advisory panels, submitting problem state- personnel. The program consists of six courses taken over a ments, and submitting proposals to perform research. Many 3-year period. Completion of the program earns the graduate an of the projects in this program involve creating guidebooks International Airport Professional (IAP) accreditation. that provide fundamental information on topics. Participation in this program has proven itself to be an excellent educational To complete the AMPAP program, one must finish four and workforce development experience. One can learn more mandatory courses and two electives. The four mandatory about the ACRP at http://www.trb.org/acrp. courses are: The Air Transportation System TRB Annual Meetings, Symposia, and Workshops Airport Planning, Development, and Environmental Management The TRB annual meeting, held each January in Washing- Airport Commercial and Financial Management ton, D.C., brings nearly 10,000 professionals together to Airport Operations, Safety, and Security. discuss the latest issues affecting the world's transportation systems. A portion of this meeting is dedicated to aviation Courses are delivered by means of classroom and on-line issues. Often, more than 50 sessions are scheduled to discuss formats. a wide variety of aviation-related issues. These sessions have been known to be very valuable for senior aviation profes- Electives include: sionals as well as junior staff and students to learn from each Airline Management for Airport Professionals other on topics covering both the theory and practice of avia- Airport Communications and Public Relations tion management. TRB, through its standing committees, also Airport Environment Management routinely holds symposia, webinars, and workshops focusing Airport Executive Leadership Program on aviation issues (see Figure 9). More information on TRB Airport Facilities Management may be found at http://www.trb.org. Airport Human Resources Management Airport User Charges Airports Council InternationalNorth America Aviation Security Professional Management Developing Customer Service Culture at Airports: ACI is a professional association representing the world's Measuring and Benchmarking the Results airports, whose mission is to advance the interests of airports Safety Management Systems and to promote professional excellence in airport manage- Strategic Use of Information Technology. More information on the ACIICAO AMPAP can be found at http://www.iap.aero. ACINA Conferences ACINA also hosts approximately 20 conferences and sem- inars annually, covering topics ranging from insurance and risk management to international aviation issues (see http:// www.aci-na.aero). Recent conference topics have included: Airport Concessions Management International Aviation Issues Airport Planning National Environmental Policy Act Practitioners FIGURE 9 Attending conferences, symposia, short courses, Workshop and workshops is an excellent way to learn from others in Economics and Finance the industry. Safety and Security.

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18 Other educational opportunities also exist within the FAA at http://lifelong.engr.utexas.edu/shortcourse.cfm?course_ itself, including regional conferences and technical symposia. num=1210. Such opportunities also may exist within individual state- level aviation organizations. For example, the Florida Air- ports Council has created a seminar series covering various Cranfield University, United Kingdom topics of importance to airports within the state. These sem- inars are digitally archived and available for distribution The Cranfield University Department of Air Transport offers through the Council. a suite of short courses covering a wide variety of topics asso- ciated with managing airports. One-week courses are offered Other aviation organizations not directly focused on the in airport operations, airport strategic planning and the envi- airport management and aviation industry workforce outside ronment, airport business management, airport commercial of flight crew, aircraft maintenance, and air traffic control revenue development, and airport design. hold organizational events that may be of benefit to educat- ing the workforce. Such organizations include the Aircraft More information about the Cranfield University cur- Owners and Pilot's Association, the Experimental Aviation riculum of airport management short courses may be found Association, and Women in Aviation. at http://www.sovereign-publications.com/cranfield-air- transport.htm. Institutions of Higher Education-- University Short Courses Academic Degree Programs A number of universities in the United States host week-long Most of the more than 4,000 community colleges, four-year short courses on topics associated with the strategic manage- undergraduate colleges, and research universities in the United ment and planning of airports and aviation systems. Follow- States offer courses and academic programs of relevance to ing are three examples: developing the aviation workforce. Many of these courses and programs are fundamental in nature, offering education in dis- ciplines ranging from business administration to engineering. University of California at Berkeley Airport Many local businesses, including aviation companies, local Systems Planning and Design Short Course airports, and air service providers often hire from their local The University of California at Berkeley hosts an annual Air- colleges, with the understanding that academic degrees are port Systems Planning and Design short course. Often held in often the foundation of professional success. November in Berkeley, California, the four-day course covers topics such as airport systems planning, airport master planning, In addition, many such entities have found that an active air traffic demand forecasting, airfield layout planning and working relationship with a local or national educational insti- design, landside modeling, airspace and airport capacity, airline tution is beneficial to an aviation industry firm's workforce operations and economics, airport finance, and environmental development needs. planning and land use compatibility training. This course is often attended by employees of airports, and government, and Although most institutions offer education not specific to private consulting firms who wish to learn the fundamentals of the aviation industry, many do offer at least a small number these topics, as well as to gain insight into the most recent tech- of courses associated with aviation. These courses are typ- niques and strategies for addressing the issues facing today's ically an introductory or survey course of issues in aviation; airport system. More information about the Berkeley Airport typical course titles such as Introduction to Aviation, Air- Systems Planning and Design short course may be found at line Operations and Management, and Airport Operations http://www.its.berkeley.edu/nextor/airportcourse. and Management are found to be the most common of such courses. In addition, if the institution offers flight training, academic courses associated with airfield familiarization, University of Texas Airport Engineering air traffic control, and federal regulations are often offered. and Management Short Course These courses do offer educational benefits for those in the aviation workforce that are not flight crews. The Center for Lifelong Engineering Education at the Univer- sity of Texas at Austin hosts an annual three-day short course in Airport Engineering and Management. This course focuses University Aviation Association Member on the engineering-level details of airport management. Top- and Aviation Accreditation Board ics covered include the FAA/ICAO planning process, airport International Accredited Universities pavement design and rehabilitation, airport capacity analysis, airport security, and airfield signing and lighting systems. Approximately 100 institutions of higher education are institu- More information about the University of Texas Airport tional members of the University Aviation Association (UAA) Engineering and Management short course may be found (16). The UAA is a non-profit member-driven organization

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19 whose mission is to promote and foster excellence in collegiate Thirty programs at four-year colleges and universities, aviation by providing a forum for students, faculty, staff, and located throughout the continental United States, are cur- practitioners to share ideas, enhance the quality of education, rently accredited under AABI. Engaging in relationships with and develop stronger aviation programs and curricula. these programs is one such strategy to target the development of a future workforce. A list of UAA institutional members is The UAA addresses its mission, in part, by hosting con- provided in Appendix A of this report. ferences and educational workshops for its members, as well as by working with the wider aviation industry to meet its Most such schools offer fully accredited degree programs workforce needs. in Aviation Management. These programs are typically broad- based curricula offering overviews of the different elements of UAA institutional members are typically four-year colleges the aviation industry. Fewer such institutions offer full degree and universities that offer degree programs in the aviation programs in specialized areas within aviation, such as Aviation field. Many UAA universities focus entirely on flight train- Safety, Aviation Security, and Airport Management; however, ing, whereas others provide broader aviation-related curric- most schools do offer at least one course in these areas. ula, from air traffic control to airport management. Aviation courses are typically housed in a university's college or depart- These institutions also tend to offer more fundamental ment of technology, engineering, business, or "aviation." courses with applications to aviation, including full-degree programs or majors in areas ranging from Economics and Finance to several relevant engineering disciplines. Degree Programs Aviation programs at UAA schools are primarily offered at Figure 12 illustrates the emphasis of certain course topics the undergraduate level (Associates and Bachelors degrees), at UAA member schools. From this figure it can be seen, for although a select number of UAA schools offer Masters and example, that 90% of UAA schools offer either a full degree Doctorate-level programs, as illustrated in Figure 10 (17 ). program or a major in Aviation Management, and most offer at least basic Business Administration courses, while fewer Figure 11 illustrates the number of reported enrollments in schools offer majors or individual specialized courses. each degree program at UAA member institutions Several of these schools reported engaging in activities Known as the Council on Aviation Accreditation until 2005, outside of traditional course curricula to help develop and the Aviation Accreditation Board International (AABI) has the educate students interested in aviation careers (see Figure 13). mission of advancing quality in education through a formal The most common such activities include: accreditation program and providing guidance to educational institutions delivering aviation-related education. Accord- Extracurricular organizations ing to the AABI, accreditation ensures that professional pro- Organizations such as the Alpha Eta Rho aviation frater- grams achieve and maintain a level of performance as judged nity or a student chapter of the AAAE provide opportu- by the FAA, other educational programs, and the wider avi- nities for students to further their education outside of ation industry (18). the classroom. Often these organizations make site visits FIGURE 10 Aviation programs offered at UAA member institutions.

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20 Associate Bachelors Masters Doctorate Number of reported enrollments FIGURE 11 Program enrollments at UAA member institutions. of aviation companies, perform volunteer work for such employees valuable work experience, which will make companies, and attend larger industry conferences. These them more productive when they enter the workforce as activities allow the future workforce to target their inter- career professionals. ests, network with current professionals, and develop Research Opportunities Benefiting Workforce Growth relationships of mutual benefit to future employers and and Development their careers. Many colleges and universities, including but not lim- Guest Speaker and Mentoring Opportunities ited to those schools with aviation programs, actively Many of these schools host regular guest speakers and engage in research that addresses the needs of the avia- seminars to discuss current issues in the aviation industry. tion industry, works directly with industry participants, Many of the speakers are local professionals within the and utilizes both the current and future workforce. Many aviation industry, such as airport managers, FBO oper- strategic issues can be addressed by coordinating with ators, or local flight department managers. These events these schools. not only provide the opportunity for the future workforce Scholarship Programs to target their learning and focus on given interests, but Most universities offer financial aid and scholarship also give those who are present an opportunity to stress opportunities for full- and part-time students in degree what they believe are the more important issues affecting programs. There are also a number of scholarship oppor- the industry, as well as help target their potential future tunities available, particularly for those studying avia- employees. These events also provide the opportunity tion or an aviation-related discipline. The UAA pub- to create mentorship programs between the current and lishes an annual catalog of scholarship opportunities. future aviation workforce. According to the UAA, as of 2009, there are more than Student Employment Activities 750 scholarships available, totaling more than $1.2 mil- Many of these institutions also operate flight programs lion. Nearly 20 of these scholarships, totaling $12,500 in or other aviation-related activities including operating award funding are specifically for those pursuing studies their own airports or FBOs. Quite often, many employ- in airport management. Another 70 scholarships total- ment positions are filled by current students. Student ing nearly $200,000 are available to those studying in employment positions range from line service, fueling, the field of aviation management (19). and other airfield ramp activities to administrative staff Some institutions, not necessarily affiliated with UAA, positions. It is clear that these activities give the student have aviation programs or have worked with local air-

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21 FIGURE 12 Aviation programs offered at UAA institutions (based on a sample of UAA schools). ports and aviation industry companies to address this need. Most such programs involve the local community college and cover basic courses ranging from computer skills to English communications, to some aviation- specific material, from airfield familiarization to avia- tion law and regulations. FAA Centers of Excellence Understanding that the aviation workforce is in need of pro- fessionals who can expand the industry's body of knowledge, the FAA has supported a number of universities in developing aviation-related research programs, many of which are directly applicable to the development of the aviation workforce (20). Examples of these Centers of Excellence include: CGAR: The Center of Excellence in General Aviation Research FIGURE 13 Activities conducted at institutions of higher education often allow for the interaction of aviation The mission of CGAR is to make significant contributions professionals and the future aviation industry workforce. toward improvements in the safety and efficiency of general

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22 aviation air transportation. Although much of CGAR focuses on improvements in flight education research, many projects have partnered with industry to have a greater understand- ing of airport and aviation safety, as well as to test new tech- nologies of benefit to general aviation. CGAR institutions are EmbryRiddle Aeronautical University (Daytona Beach and Prescott campuses), University of Alaska (Fairbanks and Anchorage campuses), University of North Dakota, Wichita State University, Florida A&M University, and Middle Ten- nessee State University. More information about CGAR may be found at http://www.cgar.org. NEXTOR: The National Center of Excellence for Aviation Operations Research FIGURE 14 Workforce development begins long before a future professional's first job. The mission of NEXTOR is to advance new ideas and para- digms for aviation operations, train and educate education pro- fessionals, and promote knowledge transfer among industry, government, and academic leaders. NEXTOR focuses on per- Center of Excellence focusing on airport pavement issues, forming research to improve the aviation system as a whole and has since broadened to include wildlife issues, anti-icing, and, in doing so, emphasizes the use of strategic and analyt- and lighting. In 2004, the O'Hare Modernization Program ini- ical models. Academic graduates of the NEXTOR Center of tiated a research program through CEAT that targets techni- Excellence have gone on to full-time positions within the air- cal issues related to construction of new and extended run- port industry, FAA, and aviation consulting firms. NEXTOR ways at O'Hare International Airport. institutions are George Mason University, Massachusetts Insti- tute of Technology, University of California at Berkeley, Uni- One of the major objectives of CEAT is to educate and versity of Maryland at College Park, and the Virginia Poly- train students for airport pavement engineering positions with technic Institute and State University. More information about state, federal, and private agencies. CEAT is pleased to have NEXTOR may be found at http://www.nextor.org. a large group of outstanding students involved in airport pave- ment research and in wildlife hazard research. It is believed that these students will be well qualified to become profes- PARTNER: The Partnership for Air Transportation sional engineers who will design and construct future airport Noise and Emissions Reduction pavement systems. More information about CEAT may be found at http://www.ceat.uiuc.edu/. The Partnership for AiR Transportation Noise and Emissions Reduction is a leading aviation cooperative research orga- nization and an FAA/NASA/Transport Canada-sponsored Secondary Schools Center of Excellence. PARTNER fosters breakthrough tech- nological, operational, policy, and workforce advances for the There are a select number of high schools in the United States betterment of mobility, economy, national security, and the that have a curriculum focused on educating students with environment. PARTNER is based at the Massachusetts Insti- interests in aviation and aerospace industry careers. Although tute of Technology. More information about PARTNER may these programs tend to focus on areas such as flight training, be found at http://web.mit.edu/aeroastro/partner/index.html. aircraft maintenance, and airline management, course curric- ula at these schools do cover aviation fundamentals that are germane to the industry as a whole. In addition, these schools CEAT: Center of Excellence in Airport Technology tend to attract those students with both the aptitude and interest in aviation careers (see Figure 14). Examples of these schools The Center of Excellence for Airport Technology (CEAT) include the Aviation Career and Technical Education High is a research center located at the Department of Civil and School in New York City, New York; Aviation High School in Environmental Engineering at the University of Illinois at Des Moines, Washington; and Oakland Aviation High School UrbanaChampaign. CEAT was founded in 1995 as an FAA in Oakland, California.