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4 Systems-level workforce development strategies consider the level workforce development programs. There are a number necessary funding and legislative mechanisms that facili- of reasons for this. tate the other levels of workforce development. For example, funding policies may include the provision of a workforce First, before developing organizational- and systems-level development budget. workforce development programs it is necessary to have a complete understanding of the current workforce. Interest- Organizational Level: Focusing on the workforce devel- ingly, there is little specific census data with respect to the opment policies of the organization. aviation industry workforce. Organizational-level workforce development strategies focus In addition, many of the public-sector organizations within on the policies, resources, and supervisory strategies that are the industry, including publicly owned airports, and state and geared toward building a workforce that is robust to accom- federal agencies, must operate their workforce management modate changes in the work environment, able to promote practices according to local or federal policies. These policies internally, and to target hire. Organizational-level workforce often do not provide the resources or the operational feasi- strategies may include internal rotation programs, educational bility for formal workforce development. seminars, or policies to send members of the workforce to external workforce development opportunities. As a result, most workforce development programs have focused on professional development. These programs are typ- Team Level: Focusing on the small group dynamics of ically provided by professional agencies supporting the indus- a working team. try or through institutions of higher education. Such programs will be detailed in chapter four of this synthesis. Team-level workforce development considers a team of indi- viduals performing similar tasks; for example, an airport oper- ations team, or a team of diverse skill sets such as a master ORGANIZATION OF REPORT planning team. Team-level workforce development on the team level focuses on providing support for team success This synthesis is organized into five chapters. Chapter one and developing techniques to improve team communication, introduces the concept of workforce development and, in gen- coordination, and cohesion. eral, and how, to date, the concept has been applied in the avi- ation industry. Chapter two focuses on the current state of the Individual Level: Focusing on an individual's workforce civil aviation industry, with respect to the industry's work- development. force development needs. Within this chapter, a description of the various professions found in the industry is presented, Individual-level workforce development includes skills train- the technical and professional requirements to successfully ing, but also practices to improve employee motivation and perform these professions are summarized and described, and reduce stress factors within the working environment. Exam- the areas where workforce development within the industry ples of individual-level workforce development practices is greatest are presented. Chapter three describes the various include allowing an individual to participate in a training workforce development resources available to the industry. course, applying the skills learned in the training to a project, This chapter describes both in-house training programs and and providing rewards for successfully performing at this programs available to the industry from external organizations newly achieved skill level. Individual-level workforce devel- that specialize in aviation system workforce development. opment also focuses on employee performance appraisal prac- In chapter four, innovative workforce development programs tices, as it is often the performance appraisal that is the most and practices are highlighted as examples that may be repli- formal and direct method of communication between employee cated by other organizations within the industry in meeting and supervisor with respect to the employee's workforce devel- their workforce development needs. Chapter five provides opment potential. Individual workforce development is also the synthesis conclusions with a brief description of further commonly referred to as "professional development." research. This synthesis also provides an appendix (Appendix A) of WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT IN THE AVIATION INDUSTRY institutions that specialize in aviation workforce develop- ment. These institutions range from high schools, to colleges Workforce development practices in the aviation industry have and universities, to professional organizations. Appendix B focused on professional development, while few resources is a list of aviation professional organizations with workforce have been dedicated to developing organizational and systems- development resources.