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TRANSIT TCRP REPORT 138 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration Estimating Soft Costs for Major Public Transportation Fixed Guideway Projects Part 1: Guidebook Part 2: Final Report

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TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* SELECTION COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS Ann August Santee Wateree Regional Transportation Authority CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington MEMBERS VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore John Bartosiewicz McDonald Transit Associates EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Michael Blaylock Jacksonville Transportation Authority MEMBERS Linda J. Bohlinger HNTB Corp. J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Raul Bravo Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Raul V. Bravo & Associates Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson John B. Catoe, Jr. Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Gregory Cook Norfolk, VA Veolia Transportation William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Terry Garcia Crews Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, StarTran Kim R. Green Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville GFI GENFARE Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Angela Iannuzziello Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC ENTRA Consultants John Inglish Randell H. Iwasaki, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Utah Transit Authority Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Jeanne W. Krieg Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Jonathan H. McDonald Stantec Consulting Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Gary W. McNeil Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson GO Transit Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Michael P. Melaniphy Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Motor Coach Industries Frank Otero Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO PACO Technologies Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Keith Parker Authority, Atlanta, GA VIA Metropolitan Transit David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Peter Rogoff FTA Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Jeffrey Rosenberg Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Amalgamated Transit Union Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI Richard Sarles C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin New Jersey Transit Corporation Michael Scanlon San Mateo County Transit District EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Beverly Scott Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of James Stem Homeland Security, Washington, DC United Transportation Union Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Frank Tobey J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT First Transit Matthew O. Tucker Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA North County Transit District George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York Pam Ward University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Ottumwa Transit Authority Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Alice Wiggins-Tolbert Parsons Brinckerhoff LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC William W. Millar APTA John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Robert E. Skinner, Jr. Officials, Washington, DC TRB David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT AASHTO Victor Mendez William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC FHWA Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Louis Sanders Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT APTA David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT SECRETARY Christopher W. Jenks Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT TRB Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of June 2009. *Membership as of February 2010.

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 138 Estimating Soft Costs for Major Public Transportation Fixed Guideway Projects Part 1: Guidebook Part 2: Final Report AECOM Arlington, VA Donald Schneck, LLC Bryn Mawr, PA Ali Touran NORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY Boston, MA Raul V. Bravo + Associates, Inc. Reston, VA Sharp & Company Rockville, MD Subscriber Categories Construction Finance Public Transportation Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 138 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, Project G-10 and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current ISSN 1073-4872 systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand ISBN 978-0-309-11826-2 service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve Library of Congress Control Number 2010923718 these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to intro- duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions COPYRIGHT INFORMATION to meet demands placed on it. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report published or copyrighted material used herein. 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the Administration--now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and success- any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes from CRP. research and other technical activities in response to the needs of tran- sit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, NOTICE facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research administrative practices. Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act purposes and resources of the National Research Council. of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement out- The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review lining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooper- this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions ating organizations: FTA, the National Academies, acting through the expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research orga- necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, nization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the the Transit Development Corporation, or the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- Council, the Transit Development Corporation, and the Federal Transit Administration fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or Committee defines funding levels and expected products. manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project state- ments (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide techni- cal guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research pro- grams since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- Published reports of the nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: tran- sit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other support- are available from: ing material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for Transportation Research Board workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure Business Office that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively and can be ordered through the Internet at address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 138 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Dianne Schwager, Senior Program Officer Rachel Kirkland, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Doug English, Editor TCRP PROJECT G-10 PANEL Field of Operations Linda J. Bohlinger, HNTB Corporation, Santa Ana, CA (Chair) Darold T. Barnum, University of Illinois Chicago, Chicago, IL Sam Carnaggio, Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, Vienna, VA John R. Decker, MTANew York City Transit, New York, NY Grace Gallucci, Chicago Regional Transportation Authority, Chicago, IL Judson J. Lawrie, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC Robert S. O'Neil, Robert O'Neil & Assoc., LLC, Potomac, MD Stephen Salin, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, Dallas, TX Susan Herre, FTA Liaison Aaron C. James, Sr., FTA Liaison Michael O'Connor, FTA Liaison Richard Weaver, APTA Liaison Peter Shaw, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By Dianne Schwager Staff Officer Transportation Research Board TCRP Report 138: Estimating Soft Costs for Major Public Transportation Fixed Guideway Projects: Part 1: Guidebook; Part 2: Final Report is an important resource that addresses the costs for professional services for major transit investments. The Guidebook is a resource intended for project managers and cost estimators working for transit agencies or other organizations in the early phases of planning a major fixed guideway public transportation project. It defines and describes soft costs and provides a new methodology to estimate soft costs based on historical projects. The Final Report presents more detailed technical infor- mation about this project's data collection, methodology, and statistical analysis. While the Final Report may be used by transit agencies, it will also be used by regional governments, state and national departments of transportation, researchers, project sponsors, and cost estimators. The costs of a new fixed guideway public transportation project line are extremely impor- tant in the public deliberation over whether to build the project. While considerable infor- mation is available on the "hard costs" of transit capital construction (such as steel, con- crete, rail cars and buses, or construction labor), prior to this research, transit systems had few resources that addressed professional services or "soft costs." These costs have ranged from as low as 11% to as high as 54% of hard costs for U.S. light and heavy rail transit projects. On average, soft costs for federally funded fixed guideway transit projects account for about 30% in additional cost above hard costs--a significant part of the ever-important estimate of total project cost. The Guidebook is designed to help practitioners in two ways: 1. By Providing Information. The first sections supply basic information about what soft costs are, how transit agencies and their contractors estimate soft costs, how the estimates fit into the Federal Transit Administration's New Starts process, and how project char- acteristics such as guideway length or project delivery method have tended to drive soft costs up or down in the past. 2. By Presenting a Soft Cost Estimation Methodology. The final sections of the Guidebook provide a new tool to estimate project soft costs, based on both the characteristics of the project and the organizational attributes of its sponsor agency. This methodology is based on industry surveys, interviews, and an extensive analysis of the "as-built" costs of nearly 60 rail transit projects over the past three decades.

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The Final Report presents the research, data sources, and analysis underlying the Guide- book. To support the development of the Guidebook on soft costs, this report: Identifies a working definition of soft costs through a literature review and industry outreach; Describes the current industry practice of estimating soft costs through a questionnaire of the transit industry and interviews with industry professionals; and Statistically analyzes the as-built costs of 59 past transit projects to determine how project characteristics have driven soft costs historically.

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CONTENTS P A R T 1 : Guidebook P A R T 2 : Final Report