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PA RT 2 Final Report
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CONTENTS 5 Summary 5 S.1. Definition of Soft Costs 6 S.2. Soft Cost Estimation: State of the Practice 8 S.3. Soft Cost Expenditures: As-Built Analysis 8 S.4. A New Approach to Estimate Soft Costs 9 S.5. Future Research Direction 10 Chapter 1 Introduction 10 1.1. Purpose of This Report 10 1.2. Background 11 1.3. Definition of Soft Costs 13 1.4. Organization of This Report 14 Chapter 2 Literature Review on Soft Cost Definition and Components 14 2.1. Papers and Websites 15 2.2. Indirect Costs 15 2.3. Textbooks and Technical Books 16 2.4. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Publications 16 2.5. European Sources 17 2.6. Summary and Conclusion 18 Chapter 3 Soft Cost Estimation: State of the Practice 18 3.1. In-Depth Interviews with Professional Cost Estimators 20 3.2. Questionnaire of Transit Cost Estimators 20 3.3. Questionnaire Results: Magnitude of Estimated Soft Costs 25 3.4. Questionnaire Results: Drivers Identified 27 3.5. Questionnaire Results: Impact of Drivers 31 Chapter 4 As-Built Soft Cost Analysis 31 4.1. Approach 31 4.2. Data Source: FTA Capital Cost Database 33 4.3. Potential Issues in Soft Cost Categorization 35 4.4. Historical Soft Costs 42 4.5. Relationships between Cost Drivers and Historical Soft Costs 53 Chapter 5 Conclusion 53 5.1. Literature Review 53 5.2. Soft Cost Estimation: State of the Practice 54 5.3. As-Built Cost Analysis 55 5.4. Future Research Directions 56 Bibliography
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58 Appendix A Cost Estimators Interviewed 59 Appendix B Project Names and Descriptions in As-Built Analysis 59 B.1. Data Sources for Project Descriptions 59 B.2. Project Descriptions 73 Appendix C Supplementary As-Built Cost Analysis 73 C.1. Data Preparation and Standardization 73 C.2. Adjustments Addressing Different Cost Categorization 74 C.3. Adjustment for Inflation and Nationalization 74 C.4. Outliers Omitted 74 C.5. Vehicle Soft Costs 75 C.6. Soft Costs by Mode and Year 78 C.7. Soft Costs by Complexity: Overall Project Size 82 C.8. Soft Costs by Complexity: New versus Extension 84 C.9. Soft Costs by Complexity: Percentage of Guideway Not at grade 86 C.10. Soft Costs by Complexity: Percentage of Guideway Below Grade 88 C.11. Relationships Among Other Category Unit Costs 90 C.12. Soft Costs by Complexity: Right-of-Way Costs 90 C.13. Soft Costs and Project Development Budget 92 C.14. Soft Costs and Project Development Schedule 95 C.15. Vertical Profile and Soft Cost Measurement 96 C.16. Isolating Agency-Specific Effects