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60 Estimating Soft Costs for Major Public Transportation Fixed Guideway Projects Table 16. (Continued). Approx. Abbreviated Length Midyear of Delivery Name Full Project Name (mi) Expend. Mode Method Charlotte Charlotte South Corridor 9.6 2005 Light DBB VTA Tas W VTA Tasman West 7.6 1999 Light DBB VTA Tas E VTA Tasman East 4.9 2004 Light DBB VTA Capitol Segment Connected to 3.3 2004 Light DBB VTA Capitol Tasman East VTA Vasona VTA Vasona Segment 5.3 2005 Light DBB MARTA N-S Atlanta MARTA North-South Line 22.2 1984 Heavy DBB MARTA Dun Atlanta MARTA North Line Dunwoody Extension 7.0 1998 Heavy DBB MBTA Orang Boston MBTA Orange Line 4.7 1983 Heavy DBB Baltimore Baltimore MDMTA Metro Sections A and B 15.0 1982 Heavy DBB CTA Orange Chicago CTA Southwest Orange Line 9.0 1990 Heavy DBB CTA O'Hare Chicago CTA O'Hare Extension Blue Line 7.1 1981 Heavy DBB Chicago CTA Brown Line (Ravenswood) 9.1 2006 Heavy DBB CTA Brown Rehabilitation CTA Douglas Chicago CTA Blue Line (Douglas) Rehabilitation 5.6 2002 Heavy DBB LA Red 1 Los Angeles Red Line Segment I 3.4 1988 Heavy DBB LA Red 2 Los Angeles Red Line Segments 2A & 2B 6.7 1994 Heavy DBB LA Red 3 Los Angeles Red Line Segment III 6.5 1998 Heavy DBB Miami Miami Dade Metrorail 21.0 1982 Heavy DBB San Juan San Juan Tren Urbano 10.7 2002 Heavy DBB BART SFO San Francisco, CA BART SFO Extension 8.7 2002 Heavy DBB DC Shady G Washington, DC Shady Grove (A Route) 18.0 1977 Heavy DBB DC Glenmt 1 Washington, DC Glenmont (B Route) 5.7 1980 Heavy N/A DC Glenmt 2 Washington, DC Glenmont Outer (B Route) 6.2 1996 Heavy N/A DC Huntgtn Washington, DC Huntington (C Route) 12.1 1977 Heavy DBB DC New Ca Washington, DC New Carrollton (D Route) 11.8 1974 Heavy DBB DC U St. Washington, DC U Street (E Route) 1.7 1988 Heavy DBB DC Greenblt Washington, DC Greenbelt Mid (E Route) 2.3 1997 Heavy DBB DC Anacost Washington, DC Anacostia (F Route) 4.3 1988 Heavy DBB DC Anacost O Washington, DC Anacostia Outer (F Route) 6.7 1999 Heavy DBB DC Addison Washington, DC Addison (G Route) 3.5 1978 Heavy DBB DC Springfld Washington, DC Springfield (J,H Route) 3.5 1988 Heavy DBB DC Vienna Washington, DC Vienna (K Route) 12.0 1980 Heavy DBB DC L'Enfant Washington, DC L'Enfant (L Route) 1.7 1974 Heavy DBB Phil Frankf. Philadelphia SEPTA Frankford Rehabilitation 5.3 1997 Heavy DBB NYCT 63rd New York NYCT 63rd Street Tunnel 0.4 1977 Heavy N/A NYCT Stillw New York NYCT Stillwell Terminal Rehabilitation 0.3 2000 Heavy N/A B.2. Project Descriptions Sacramento Stage I Sacramento, CA Label: Sacram. 1 The Sacramento Stage I project included a 20.6-mile light rail system with two lines, the Northeast (Blue) and Folsom (Gold) lines, which connect the eastern and northeastern suburbs to downtown Sacramento. The segment is mostly single-track, with double-tracking in passing sections for about 40% of its length. The alignment is largely at grade and is located on existing rights-of-way in freeway medians and abandoned railroad corridors. Pittsburgh Light Rail Stage I Pittsburgh, PA Label: Pittsburgh 1 The Stage I Light Rail Transit Program in 1980 to restore light rail transit service on the old trolley routes connecting the South Hills suburbs with downtown Pittsburgh. Stage I consisted of 12.5 miles of new alignment construction and 12 miles of right-of-way rehabilitation. In 1985 the first segment started operating for 1.6 miles underground in the downtown business district and at grade south of the Monongahela River to the South Hills Village.

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Project Names and Descriptions in As-Built Analysis 61 Portland MAX Segment I Portland, OR Label: Portland Seg1 The Portland MAX Segment I construction project resulted in the opening of the first mod- ern light rail line in Portland in 1986. A 15-mile east-west alignment, named the Banfield Cor- ridor, was built mostly at grade with some elevated portions along joint highway alignments. It extended from the Cleveland Avenue station in Gresham to downtown Portland. The Segment I alignment permits trains to operate in reserved rights-of-way in city streets, arterials, and high- way medians. Of the 30 stations built, 25 are at grade, less than a mile apart, and have easy access for pedestrians. Stations generally lack park-and-ride facilities but have bus transfer facilities with good intermodal coordination. MAX Segment I was the first segment to open on the present day Hillsboro-Gresham (Blue) line that was extended in 1998 with the opening of the Portland Westside/Hillsboro MAX segment. Los Angeles--Long Beach Blue Line Los Angeles, CA Label: LA Blue The Blue Line is a modern light rail transit line in Los Angeles and primarily uses the original Pacific Electric right-of-way. It provides riders from the communities of Vernon, Huntington Park, South Gate, Watts, Compton, Carson, and Long Beach with access to downtown Los Angeles and the greater Metro system. The 22.6-mile line required 22 stations and connects at its down- town terminus to the Metro heavy rail lines at the 7th Street/Metro Center station. Its southern ter- mini stations are in the 4-station loop in downtown Long Beach. Approximately 80% of the line is a dedicated alignment, mostly at grade or elevated with an underground portion. Construction began in October 1987 and revenue service commenced in July 1990. This project encountered some complications in planning and design due to unexpected environmental review, state environmental laws, and an active political and stakeholder environment. San Jose North Corridor San Jose, CA Label: San Jose N Revenue service commenced in December 1987 in a small segment of the San Jose North Cor- ridor that would become the first section built of a longer San Jose Guadalupe Corridor that would require two phases to reach completion. The full 20.8-mile North Corridor was completed and servicing passengers in April 1991. This project's alignment is mainly located along the median area of major roadways and a transitway through downtown San Jose. The alignment is at grade for nearly the full length and required only one bridge, two overpasses, and a short underpass to be built in the new guideway. The guideway is double-tracked for its entirety except for two small sections of single-track operation. Hudson-Bergen MOS-I Newark, NJ Label: Hud-Berg I The first two lines of the Hudson-Bergen Light Rail began full revenue operations in 2002. (Ser- vice had opened in three phases between 2000 and 2002.) The project included 8.7 miles of double- tracking and 14 stations (including intermodal transfer stations). The fully built segment starts at the Hoboken Terminal and runs south towards the Liberty State Park station after which the 22nd Street-Hoboken (Blue) and West Side Avenue-Tonnelle Avenue (Orange) lines separate with the latter running a 3-station spur line to western Jersey City. The alignment of the 22nd Street- Hoboken Terminal line continues south from the Liberty State Park junction parallel with the I-78 and Garfield Avenue corridors and then along Avenue E, terminating at the 22nd Street station.

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62 Estimating Soft Costs for Major Public Transportation Fixed Guideway Projects This project encountered some soft cost complexities when the project underwent an engi- neering redesign after the sponsor had executed designbuild contracts and had begun util- ity relocation. Hudson-Bergen MOS-II Newark, NJ Label: Hud-Berg II This project included a new light rail line from the Hoboken Terminal station to North Bergen County (the green-colored Tonnelle Avenue-Hoboken Terminal Line). In addition, a station was added to the Blue Line, moving the southern terminus from the 34th Street station to the 22nd Street station. The completed project required 6.1 miles of track and 7 new stations. The MOS-2 segment opened for revenue service in increments from 2003 to 2006. Hiawatha Corridor Minneapolis, MN Label: Hiawatha The Hiawatha Corridor LRT project included an 11.6-mile light rail transit line with 17 stations that operates primarily in the Hiawatha Avenue/Trunk Highway 55 Corridor linking downtown Minneapolis to the Mall of America in Bloomington and also servicing the Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport. The alignment includes a 1.5-mile tunnel under the airport runways. Revenue operations began in December 2004. Portland Interstate MAX Portland, OR Label: Portland Int The Portland Interstate MAX Light Rail Project included a 5.8-mile, 10-station light rail tran- sit line (Yellow) that extends north from downtown Portland parallel to the I-5 Corridor. The line branches from the existing Blue Line in the Rose Quarter District, follows the median of Interstate Avenue for 4.5 miles, between the Albina and Overlook Park stations, to Kenton, and then is on a separate alignment to the Portland Exposition Center terminus, which is just south of the Columbia River. The original design called for the line to extend across the river to Van- couver, Washington, but Tri-Met scaled back alignment options after Portland voters rejected a bond measure. This project's alignment near an active highway also raised design complexities. The project opened to revenue service in May 2004. San Diego Mission Valley East San Diego, CA Label: San Diego The Mission Valley East (MVE) project included in a new double-track light rail line that runs from the Mission San Diego Trolley station east of I-15 to the Grossmont Center Trolley station. The new line provides important connectivity between the pre-existing Blue and Orange Lines, as well as San Diego State University, which was an active stakeholder in the design process. The 5.9-mile project required 4 new stations and the renovation of an existing station. The project opened for revenue service in July 2005. St. Louis St. Clair County Extension St. Louis, MO Label: St. Louis The St. Clair County Metrolink Extension Project is a three-phase light rail construction proj- ect that will eventually extend service over 26 miles from East St. Louis, IL, to the MidAmerica

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Project Names and Descriptions in As-Built Analysis 63 Airport in St. Clair County. The Phase 1 segment opened for revenue service in May 2001. It is a 17.4-mile Minimum Operable Segment (MOS) light rail extension of the existing Red Line from the prior terminus at the 5th & Missouri station in East St. Louis to the College Sta- tion. The project required 8 new stations, 7 park-and-ride lots, 20 new LRT vehicles, and a new vehicle maintenance facility. Salt Lake North-South Corridor Salt Lake City, UT Label: Salt Lake The North-South Corridor included construction of the SLC-Sandy line, which opened for revenue service in 1999 from the Arena Station to the Sandy Civic Center Station. The original 15-mile light rail alignment starts on South Temple, turns right onto Main Street, right at 700 South, left at 200 West, and then follows the Union Pacific (UP) corridor. The remainder of the alignment goes south within the UP corridor to the 10000 South (Sandy Civic Center) station. The original line was mainly built with double-tracking, with two single track sections at the I-215 overpass and the State Street Bridge (U.S. Highway 89), and had 16 stations. Southern New Jersey Light Rail Transit System Trenton, NJ Label: South NJ The Southern New Jersey Light Rail Transit System, known as the "River Line," was built for intercity travel in the southwestern part of the state. The line has 20 stations between Tren- ton and Camden, near Philadelphia. The 34-mile light rail system runs roughly parallel to New Jersey Highway Route 130 in the former Conrail right-of-way adjacent to the Delaware River. The line's construction required upgrading 50 at-grade crossings on local streets and the reconstruction of 20 bridges. Stations connect to other public transport services offered by NJ TRANSIT, PATCO, SEPTA, and Amtrak to provide passengers with easy connections to New York City, Philadelphia, Trenton, and Atlantic City. Construction began in May 2000, and rev- enue operations began in 2004. Portland Westside/Hillsboro MAX Portland, OR Label: Portland W The Westside/Hillsboro extension is an 18-mile light rail extension to the TriMet MAX Blue line from downtown Portland to Beaverton and Hillsboro. While TriMet, the sponsor agency, initially considered designing an alignment that runs at 6% grade to cross the West Hills, which rise 700 feet higher than the downtown area, this plan was eventually changed in favor of a 3-mile twin tube tunnel. The alignment emerges from the twin tube tunnel, which includes the Washington Park Station at 260 feet below ground, to follow Highway 26 to the Sunset Transit Center before turning onto Highway 217. The alignment approach at the Beaverton Transit Center required newly constructed right-of-way. The line eventually ends on 12th Avenue in Hillsboro before terminating on Washington Street. Revenue operation began in 1998. Sacramento South Corridor Sacramento, CA Label: Sacram. So The Sacramento South Corridor includes a 6.3-mile light rail line with 7 stations that spurs southward at the 16th Street station from the original Sacramento Light Rail alignment. The

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64 Estimating Soft Costs for Major Public Transportation Fixed Guideway Projects constructed section originates in downtown Sacramento at the intersection of 16th and Q streets and follows the Union Pacific freight corridor until it terminates at the Meadowview Road sta- tion. The extension opened for revenue operation in 2003. Sacramento Folsom Corridor Sacramento, CA Label: Sacram. Fol The Sacramento Folsom Corridor light rail project was built to extend transit service within a corridor following Highway 50 to downtown Folsom. The 10.7-mile suburban extension required 9 stations between the Mather Field/Mills station and downtown Folsom. In addition, the Sacramento Valley station (adjacent to the Amtrak station) was built and connected via a new 0.7-mile double-track extension to the existing 8th & K station. The con- nection to Amtrak service required additional boarding platforms to be constructed at exist- ing stations. Pasadena Gold Line Los Angeles, CA Label: LA Gold Pasa The Pasadena Gold Line runs 13.7 miles, stopping at 13 stations, to connect Chinatown, High- land Park, South Pasadena, and Pasadena to downtown Los Angeles via Union Station (its west- ern terminus). At Union Station this light rail line provides walking connections to the Red and Purple heavy rail lines. Construction commenced in 1994 and revenue operations were sched- uled to begin in May 2001. Unfortunately, a lack of funding and other complications resulted in construction stoppage. The state of California authorized the creation of the Metro Gold Line Construction Authority in 1998 with the sole purpose of immediately instituting tighter cost con- trols and resuming design, contracting, and construction of the Los Angeles to Pasadena Metro Gold Line. The newly formed construction authority completed construction in three years and the line opened for revenue service in 2003. Denver Southwest Corridor Denver, CO Label: Denver SW The Southwest Corridor line was built to connect the southern portion of Denver with its downtown via the already operational Central Corridor at the I-25 & Broadway station. The extension added 8.5 miles and 5 stations of service to the growing Denver light rail system. The extension is entirely grade-separated from the I-25/Broadway station to the Mineral Avenue sta- tion in Littleton, Colorado. This project planning phase spent some time addressing complexi- ties arising from the need to accommodate through-routing of trains. Revenue service on the extension began in 2000. Pittsburgh Light Rail Stage II Pittsburgh, PA Label: Pittsburgh II The Stage II LRT Priority Project included the reconstruction of the Overbrook line, a 5.5-mile existing rail line, which had closed in 1993 because of the deterioration of old bridges. This included rebuilding the existing light rail track bed, new bridges, and retaining walls through its entire length. The first segment connected with the existing operating light rail system at the South Hills Junction on its northern end and with the Castle Shannon Junction at its south- ern end. These operational challenges resulted in some design complexities. The service opened in June 2004.

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Project Names and Descriptions in As-Built Analysis 65 Los Angeles Eastside Gold Line Los Angeles, CA Label: LA Gold East The eastside extension will provide transit access from the east side of Los Angeles to the regional Metro system. The 5.9-mile eastside extension of the Gold Line will be primarily at grade, with a 1.8-mile mid-section tunnel. It will originate at Union Station in downtown Los Angeles, where it connects to the Pasadena extension of the line and the heavy rail lines. The proj- ect alignment runs eastward along Alameda Street, 1st Street, and 3rd Street before terminating just before the intersection of Pomona and Atlantic Boulevards. This project was originally designed as a heavy rail line, but was altered to light rail because of funding constraints. Con- struction began in 2004 and revenue operation is scheduled to begin in late 2009. Phoenix Central/East Valley Light Rail Line Phoenix, AZ Label: Phoenix After some initial complications in the early planning phases, the City of Phoenix and Valley Metro Rail, Inc., a nonprofit public corporation in charge of the design, construction, and operation of the regional light rail system, partnered to construct a 19.6-mile, 27 station light rail system. The system's alignment, located primarily in the street median from 19th Avenue and Bethany Home Road, starts in north central Phoenix and runs through the City of Tempe to the intersection of Main Street and Longmore in Mesa. The City of Phoenix entered into a Full Fund- ing Grant Agreement (FFGA) in January 2005, construction started the same month, and rev- enue operations began in December 2008. Portland South Corridor Portland, OR Label: Portland So The Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District (TriMet) and Portland Metro, the region's metropolitan planning organization, are constructing 8.3 miles of new light rail transit consisting of two segments connecting to the existing "MAX" LRT system along Interstate 84. The South Corridor Extension will provide a new rail line, "the Green Line," from Clackamas Town Center to Portland State University (PSU). A portion of the Green Line will merge with and share 6.2 miles of the existing Blue Line along I-84 before continuing in the right-of-way of I-205 from the Gateway/NE 99th Avenue Transit Center to a new rail transit center at the Clacka- mas Town Center. The I-205 alignment is 6.5 miles of double-tracked and at-grade line with sev- eral grade-separated roadway crossings. The alignment in downtown Portland will run along the North-South Transit Mall Portland Union Station to the PSU campus while providing connec- tivity to the Red Line. The project includes 8 bi-directional stations for the I-205 segment and 14 unidirectional stations along the downtown Portland Mall alignment, with 7 on each leg of the one-way loop. Revenue operation is scheduled to begin in September 2009. Seattle Central Link Light Rail Project Seattle, WA Label: Seattle Cen Central Puget Sound Regional Transit Authority (Sound Transit) is constructing a 13.9-mile double-track light rail system for the initial segment of the Central Link Light Rail transit proj- ect. This segment is scheduled to open for revenue operations in July 2009. Its alignment runs from Westlake Center station through downtown Seattle to the Tukwila International Boulevard station. The system will use the existing 1.3-mile Downtown Seattle Transit Tunnel (DSTT), a new 1-mile long Beacon Hill tunnel, and a new 0.1-mile tunnel used for crossover and turnback

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66 Estimating Soft Costs for Major Public Transportation Fixed Guideway Projects operations. The scope of work includes 7 new stations, the renovation of 4 stations in the DSTT, a maintenance and operations facility, and a park-and-ride lot at the Tukwila International Blvd. station. A 1.7-mile extension to the Seattle-Tacoma Airport is scheduled to open in late 2009. Pittsburgh Northshore Light Rail Connector Pittsburgh, PA Label: Pittsburgh N The Port Authority of Allegheny County (Port Authority) is constructing a 1.2-mile double- tracked light rail transit extension from the existing Gateway terminus station in the Golden Triangle area of downtown Pittsburgh across the Allegheny River to the rapidly developing North Shore area. While remaining underground along the North Shore, the alignment travels adjacent to Bill Mazeroski Way accessing a station near the PNC Park stadium. The alignment con- tinues below grade adjacent to Reedsdale Street and transitions to an elevated alignment near Art Rooney Avenue to a station along Allegheny Avenue, near the Heinz Field stadium, before termi- nating near the West End Bridge. The project includes two bored tunnels below the Allegheny River and 3 newly constructed stations, and includes a new Gateway Station that will be constructed adjacent to the current Gateway Station to facilitate the tie-in to the existing system. The first North Shore station (North Side Station) will be located underground, and the terminus at Allegheny Station will be aerial. Charlotte South Corridor Charlotte, NC Label: Charlotte The Charlotte Area Transit System (CATS) and the City of Charlotte managed the construc- tion of a 9.6-mile and 15-station light rail transit line from the city's central business district (CBD) to I-485 in south Mecklenburg County. A 3.7-mile portion of the system--between the CBD and the Scaleybark Road station--operates in an abandoned Norfolk Southern Railroad right-of-way owned by the City of Charlotte. The remainder of the operating service (5.9 miles) runs on separate tracks parallel to this right-of-way. The single-line system opened for revenue service in 2007. This project's planning process encountered some difficulties when a redesign was required to meet FTA's cost-effectiveness threshold and other requirements. Construction was stalled because CATS had to remove from the railroad right-of-way a species of flower listed as endan- gered under the provisions of the Endangered Species Act. VTA Tasman West San Jose, CA Label: VTA Tas W The VTA Tasman West construction project was the first leg of the Tasman Light Rail Proj- ect. The entire project was originally planned as a 12.4-mile expansion of an existing line; how- ever, funding constraints forced the VTA to scale back immediate construction to a 7.6-mile Tasman West segment that opened for revenue service in December 1999. This project had an extensive public outreach and involvement process. VTA Tasman East San Jose, CA Label: VTA Tas E The Tasman East Project was a 4.9-mile light rail extension from the existing San Jose Guadalupe corridor Baypointe station to the Hostetter station. The alignment runs along Tasman Drive from North First Street to I-880 and then follows the Great Mall Parkway and

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Project Names and Descriptions in As-Built Analysis 67 Capitol Avenue. Phase I construction from the Baypointe Transfer station to the I-880/Milpitas station aligned the track for 1.9 miles in the median of Tasman Drive between the Baypointe Parkway and Alder Drive to the I-880 in Malpitas. It includes 3 new stations and opened for revenue service in May 2001. The second segment was a 3-mile extension in the median of Capitol Avenue between Alder Drive to just south of Hostetter Road. Both 4 new stations and a 7,200-ft bridge for grade separation were completed in June 2004. This project had an extensive public outreach and involvement process. VTA Capitol Segment San Jose, CA Label: VTA Capitol The Capitol Light Rail Project was a 3.3-mile light rail extension of the Tasman East Project that continued the alignment in the median of Capitol Avenue to extend service to the present terminus just south of Alum Rock Avenue. It opened simultaneously with Tasman East II for revenue operations in June 2004. This project had an extensive public outreach and involvement process. VTA Vasona Segment San Jose, CA Label: VTA Vasona The Vasona Light Rail Project is a 5.3-mile light rail extension from downtown San Jose to the Winchester Transit Center. The project added 8 new stations between Woz Way in downtown San Jose and Winchester Station in Campbell. The Vasona Light Rail operates primarily on the existing Union Pacific Railroad right-of-way between the San Jose Diridon Station and Winchester Station. Additionally, the segment between the San Fernando and San Jose Diridon Stations is in a tunnel, and the segment between Bascom Avenue and Route 17 bridges over Hamilton Avenue. This project had an extensive public outreach and involvement process and opened for revenue operations in October 2005. Atlanta MARTA North-South Line Atlanta, GA Label: MARTA N-S The MARTA North-South Line project included a 22.2-mile heavy rail line from the Hartsfield- Jackson Atlanta International Airport to the Doraville station south of the I-285 Beltway in northeast Atlanta. The alignment runs up Main Street to the Arthur Langford Parkway where it continues on Lee Street SW. The alignment veers east onto W. Whitehall Street SW just south of downtown Atlanta. In downtown the line runs underneath Peachtree Street and follows a railroad right-of-way after the Arts Center station to its northeastern terminus. The complete 18-station heavy rail line became operational in 1992. Atlanta MARTA North Line Dunwoody Extension Atlanta, GA Label: MARTA Dun The Dunwoody extension project created a spur line off the North-South line's alignment. It opened for revenue service in 1996. This line and the North-South line are co-aligned from the Airport to the Lindbergh Center station. Its alignment is a 7-mile spur line off of the North-South alignment splitting off north of the Lindbergh Center station and runs to the Dunwoody station north of the I-285 Beltway. The alignment parallels Georgia State Route 400 between the Buckhead and Medical Center stations and ends at Dunwoody between Route 400 and I-295.

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68 Estimating Soft Costs for Major Public Transportation Fixed Guideway Projects Boston MBTA Orange Line Boston, MA Label: MBTA Orang After anti-highway protests stalled the construction of a freeway into downtown Boston through the Southwest Corridor, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) con- structed a heavy rail line through the corridor. This double-tracked 4.7-mile line extended and rerouted the Orange Line south of the Chinatown station from the former Washington Street Elevated to the Southwest Corridor right-of-way. The Southwest Corridor alignment runs pri- marily below grade, with some portions in open-cut and other portions in subway, and primar- ily serves Boston's South End, Roxbury, and Jamaica Plain neighborhoods. Baltimore MTA Metro Sections A and B Baltimore, MD Label: Baltimore The Maryland Transit Administration (MTA) built a 15-mile, 12-station heavy rail line in two phases. The first phase of construction built the line from the Charles Center station in down- town Baltimore to the Reisterstown Plaza station in the northwest section of the city along Eutaw Street, Pennsylvania Avenue and briefly on Reisterstown Road before re-emerging at grade in the Western Maryland Railroad (WMR) right-of-way adjacent to Wabash Avenue. Revenue service began in 1983 along this 9-station line. A 3-station extension, which continues in the WMR right-of-way and the I-795 median to the current western terminus at Owings Mills in Baltimore County, opened for revenue service in 1987. Chicago CTA--Southwest Orange Line Chicago, IL Label: CTA Orange The CTA Orange Line, the first rapid transit line to operate in southwest Chicago, runs 9.0 miles (double-tracked) from the downtown loop to its terminus at Midway Airport (eight stations) along freight rights-of-way. Approximately 2.7 miles of the fixed guideway is aerial structure, and the remaining 6.3 miles is on embankment. It connects the neighborhoods of Burbank, Bedford Park, Bridgeview, Hometown, Justice, Merrionette Park, Oak Lawn, and Summit to the downtown Chicago loop and connections with the other five heavy rail lines. The line opened for revenue service in 1993. Chicago CTA--O'Hare Extension Blue Line Chicago, IL Label: CTA O'Hare The O'Hare project extended the Blue Line (formerly called the Milwaukee Line) within the median of the Kennedy Expressway in northwest Chicago. Construction began in the early 1980s to extend the line 7.1 miles with 4 new stations from the previous terminus at the Jefferson Park station to the present terminus at the O'Hare Airport station. Revenue service to the Rosemont station began in 1983 and to O'Hare in September 1984. Chicago CTA--Ravenswood Brown Line Rehabilitation Chicago, IL Label: CTA Brown Persistent crowding on the Brown Line platforms prompted the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) to begin reconstructing existing platforms and stations to accommodate eight-car trains, along with other related capital improvements The Ravenswood (Brown) Line extends approximately 9.1 miles with 18 stations from the Kimball Terminal on the north side of Chicago through the "Loop Elevated" section in down-

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Project Names and Descriptions in As-Built Analysis 69 town Chicago. The majority of the heavy rail line operates on an elevated structure (8.0 miles), except for a portion near the northern end of the line that operates at grade (1.1 miles). The proj- ect began in late 2004 and is under construction. As of March 2009, 16 of 18 station project ren- ovations have been completed. Chicago CTA--Douglas Blue Line Rehabilitation Chicago, IL Label: CTA Douglas The Chicago Transit Authority reconstructed 5.6 miles of the Douglas Branch, then a portion of the Blue Line (now operated as the Pink Line). The heavy rail line extends from the Clinton station, to the west of downtown Chicago, to its terminus at the 54th St./Cermak Avenue sta- tion. The project required the reconstruction and rehabilitation of 11 stations, aerial structures, upgrading power distribution and signal systems, and the reconstruction of the 54th Street main- tenance yard. The rehabilitation project was completed on schedule and the line opened to rev- enue operation in January 2005. Los Angeles Red Line Los Angeles, CA Labels: LA Red 1, LA Red 2, LA Red 3 The Red Line is a heavy rail line in Los Angeles between Union Station and North Hollywood. This line opened for revenue service in three phases between 1993 and 2000. The line includes a 3.4-mile segment of underground guideway from Union station to Westlake/MacArthur Park station. Miami-Dade Transit Metrorail Miami, FL Label: Miami Miami-Dade Metrorail built a 21-mile elevated rapid transit line with 21 stations in the early 1980s. Most of the heavy rail line operates on an aerial structure. This rapid transit line opened for revenue service in May 1984. San Juan Tren Urbano San Juan, PR Label: San Juan The Puerto Rico Highway and Transportation Authority, a division of the Puerto Rico Depart- ment of Transportation and Public Works, constructed a 10.7-mile (17.2-km) double-track heavy rail system between Bayamn Centro and the Sagrado Corazon area of Santurce in San Juan. The entire project includes 5.7 miles (9.3 km) of aerial structures and a 0.8-mile (1.4-km) tunnel. When the existing publico service was incorporated into the project during planning phases, ridership requirements increased and the design sequence changed, which impacted the project's budget. Approximately 40% of the alignment is at grade or near at grade. Aside from a short below-grade segment in the Centro Medico area, and an underground segment through Rio Piedras, the remainder is elevated track. The project includes 16 stations, 74 vehicles, and a maintenance/storage facility. The project opened for revenue service in June 2005. Bay Area Rapid Transit San Francisco Airport Extension San Francisco, CA Label: BART SFO After an extended planning process (the project's original EIS occurred in 1985), BART and San Mateo County Transit District (SamTrans) completed a rail extension in 2003. BART and

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70 Estimating Soft Costs for Major Public Transportation Fixed Guideway Projects SamTrans completed this 8.7-mile double track, 4-station, heavy rail extension that runs from the Colma station through the cities of Colma, South San Francisco, and San Bruno along the Cal- train right-of-way to Millbrae. Approximately 1.5 miles north of the Millbrae Avenue intermodal terminal, an east-west aerial "Y" stub branches to the east to service the San Francisco International Airport (SFO). Because this project extended BART service beyond the existing five counties in BART's service area, the project involved coordination with San Mateo County, including the ex- ecution of an agreement for the county to fund East Bay projects and to share the operating sub- sidy. With the support of the airport, the project sponsor was BART and the principal funding sources were San Mateo County and FTA. The extension opened for service in June 2003. WMATA--Shady Grove Extension (A Route) Washington, DC Label: DC Shady G The Shady Grove (A Route) construction project added 15 stations along 18 miles of heavy rail alignment in the District of Columbia and Montgomery County, MD. This segment of the Red Line extends from the Farragut North station to the present terminus at the Shady Grove station. Revenue service on the Shady Grove extension began in January 1977 with the opening of the Dupont Circle station. Revenue operations to the Van Ness-UDC station began in December 1981 and the full extension opened in December 1984. WMATA--Glenmont Extension (B Route) Washington, DC Labels: DC Glenmt 1, DC Glenmt 2 The Glenmont and Glenmont Outer (B Route) project was an 11.9-mile extension of WMATA's heavy rail Red Line in northeastern Washington, DC, and eastern Montgomery County, MD. This extension starts in the B&O Railroad right-of-way with an above-grade cross- ing of U.S. Route 50 (Rhode Island Ave.) right after the Rhode Island Ave-Brentwood station. It continues at grade in the railroad right-of-way through Washington, DC, with grade-elevated crossings through the downtown of the Silver Spring, MD, suburb. It submerges south of the intersection of 16th and Georgia Avenue and continues underground beneath Georgia Avenue to the terminus at the Glenmont station. The extension first opened for revenue service to the Silver Spring station in February 1978 followed by the opening of service to Wheaton in 1990. The full extension began revenue operations in January 1998. WMATA--Huntington (C Route) Washington, DC Label: DC Huntgtn WMATA's Huntington project included a 12.1-mile new heavy rail line (present-day Yellow Line) that opened for revenue in two phases. In the first phase, which opened in 1983, Yellow Line trains began operating across the Fenwick bridge over the Potomac River, and the Archives- Navy Memorial-Penn Quarter station opened. Later in 1983, the Yellow Line was extended south of Washington National Airport to its current terminus at Huntington. WMATA--New Carrollton (D Route) and Washington, DC Vienna (K Route) Labels: DC New Ca, DC Vienna The New Carrollton project included 11.8 miles of heavy rail and 14 stations, including a 5-station extension from the Stadium-Armory station in Southeast Washington to New Carrollton,

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Project Names and Descriptions in As-Built Analysis 71 MD. When it opened for revenue service in November 1978, the line originated in suburban Maryland, ran through downtown Washington via Pennsylvania Avenue, D Street, 12th Street and I Street before passing under the Potomac River to the Rosslyn station in Arlington County, Virginia. The original service alignment terminated on the Virginia side at Washington National Airport. The Maryland portion of the alignment proceeds underground from the Stadium- Armory station. It continues above ground after crossing the Anacostia River and follows the Anacostia Freeway (DC 295) and US 50 corridors at grade and on elevated structure before terminating at the New Carrollton station, a major intermodal transfer center. The Vienna project opened eight new stations on the Orange Line in two phases. In 1979, underground stations on the Wilson Boulevard corridor in Arlington County opened between Rosslyn and Ballston stations. An extension to the Vienna station, which runs primarily at grade in the median of I-66, opened for revenue service in 1986. WMATA--Green Line (E, F Routes) Washington, DC Labels: DC U St., DC Greenblt, DC Anacost, DC Anacost O The Green Line opened for revenue service in several phases between May 1991 and January 2001. The initial Anacostia alignment to be built ran north and south of downtown Washington. The DC U St. Project included a 3-station, 1.65-mile northern section (the "Mid-City line") that runs north underneath 7th Street NW from the Gallery Pl.-Chinatown station before turning west to the U Street/African-American Civil War Memorial/Cardozo station at 13th and U Streets NW. The 3-station, 4.3-mile southern section runs from L'Enfant Plaza along M Street before crossing under- neath the Anacostia River to reach the Anacostia station adjacent to Suitland Parkway. The north- ern section opened for revenue service in May 1991 with the full 6-station line opening for service in December 1991. In September 1999, with two additional stations, the full line was operational. The Outer Anacostia project extended the line 5 stations and 6.7 miles into southeast Wash- ington, DC, and Prince George's County, MD. The alignment runs underground equidistant between Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue SE and Suitland Parkway to Southern Avenue. It runs at grade parallel with Southern Avenue in a northeastward direction, briefly submerges, and reappears above-grade at Branch Avenue and Naylor Road in Temple Hills, MD. It continues parallel to the Suitland Parkway before terminating east of Branch Avenue in Suitland, MD. Rev- enue operations on this extension commenced in January 2001. The 2-station, 2.3-mile Greenbelt extension from the Prince George's Plaza station opened for revenue service in December 1993. WMATA--Addison (G Route) and Washington, DC Springfield Extensions (J, H Routes) Labels: DC Addison, DC Springfld The Addison project extended the Blue Line for 3.5 miles, adding 3 stations, from the previous terminus at the Stadium-Armory station to the Addison Road-Seat Pleasant station in Prince George's County, MD. It continues east under E. Capitol St. NE and follows that major thorough- fare underground until that corridor becomes Central Avenue in Capitol Heights, MD. Revenue service commenced on this extension in November 1980. The 2-station extension to the present terminus at Largo Town Center opened up for revenue service in December 2004. The database costs do not reflect the latest extension to Largo Town Center. The Springfield project extended Blue Line service 3.5 miles from the King Street station to the present terminus at the Franconia-Springfield station. Service with the Yellow Line south of

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72 Estimating Soft Costs for Major Public Transportation Fixed Guideway Projects the National Airport station is shared to the King Street station. Blue Line revenue operations south of the National Airport began in June 1991 with the opening of the Van Dorn Street sta- tion. The full extension was opened for revenue service in June 1997. WMATA--L'Enfant Plaza (L Route) Washington, DC Label: DC L'Enfant The L'Enfant Plaza project included 1.71 miles connecting the L'Enfant Plaza station and the Pentagon Station via the 14th Street Bridge. This addition enabled service underground in Washington, DC, in what is today the Yellow Line via 7th Street NW. Philadelphia SEPTA Frankford Rehabilitation Philadelphia, PA Label: Phil Frankf. SEPTA began rebuilding the entire Frankford Elevated Line in 1986 with new track, signal sys- tems, and stations along a 5.25-mile span between Girard Avenue and Bridge Street. In addition to renovating 10 smaller stations, the project transformed the prior terminus into the larger modern intermodal Frankford Transportation Center (FTC) in northeast Philadelphia. The new FTC terminal building was opened on August 4, 2003. This project had an extensive public out- reach process. New York NYCT 63rd Street Tunnel New York, NY Label: NYCT 63rd The project included a two-level tunnel. The NYCT F rail service uses the upper level, connect- ing the IND Queens Boulevard Line in Queens to the IND Sixth Avenue Line in Manhattan via the IND 63rd Street Line. The lower level will be used by the Long Island Rail Road East Side Access project, which will bring LIRR commuter trains to Grand Central Terminal. The tunnel is con- structed with immersed tubes in trenches at the bottom of the East River bed. Beyond the river, the tunnel was built using cut-and-cover construction. The tunnel opened in October 1989. New York NYCT Stillwell Terminal Rehabilitation New York, NY Label: NYCT Stillw The New York Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) completed the rehabilitation of its eight-track Stillwell Avenue Terminal station in Brooklyn, NY, in May of 2004. In addition to rehabilitating 90-year-old platforms, the project included a new triple-vaulted glass and steel structure with solar panels on the roof. This project had an extensive public outreach process, including the existing ridership on NYCT service as a significant stakeholder.