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April 2010 AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Responsible Senior Program Officer: E. T. Harrigan Research Results Digest 9 ALTERNATIVE AIRCRAFT AND PAVEMENT DEICERS AND ANTI-ICING FORMULATIONS WITH IMPROVED ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS This digest summarizes the results of ACRP Project 02-01, "Alternative Aircraft and Airfield Deicing and Anti-Icing Formulations with Reduced Aquatic Toxicity and Biochemical Oxygen Demand." The research was conducted by a project team consisting of the University of South Carolina, U.S. Geological Survey, Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Molecular Knowledge Systems Inc., Infoscitex Corporation, CH2M HILL, and Western Washington University. The digest was prepared from the project final reports authored by George Bowman, Steven R. Corsi, Lee Ferguson, Steven W. Geis, Harris Gold, Kevin Joback, and Dean Mericas. INTRODUCTION To accomplish this objective, the Proj- ect 02-01 team was tasked with: Discharge of spent aircraft and airfield deicing and anti-icing fluids to receiving 1. Defining the present state of the art waters is an environmental concern at air- of deicing and anti-icing products ports across the United States. The presence with respect to minimizing their of these fluids in storm water runoff can aquatic toxicity and biological oxy- increase both aquatic toxicity and biochem- gen demand. ical oxygen demand (BOD) in the receiv- 2. Identifying components of deicing ing waters, making expensive collection and anti-icing products causing aqua- and treatment of the fluids necessary at many tic toxicity and biological oxygen U.S. airports. demand. Airport Cooperative Research Program 3. Identifying promising alternative for- mulations and components for deic- (ACRP) Project 02-01, "Alternative Air- ing and anti-icing products with craft and Airfield Deicing and Anti-Icing reduced aquatic toxicity and biolog- Formulations with Reduced Aquatic Tox- ical oxygen demand. icity and Biochemical Oxygen Demand," 4. Evaluating the performance, effi- was conducted to examine the potential to ciency, material compatibility, and develop aircraft and airfield deicing and environmental, operational, and anti-icing formulations with lower aquatic safety impacts of these alternative toxicity and reduced BOD. Such products formulations and components com- could reduce infrastructure costs to airports, pared with current commercial provide aircraft operators and airports with products. greater operational latitude in deicing and 5. Describing the fate and transport of anti-icing operations, and improve the deicing and anti-icing formulation overall reliability of the air transportation components and their degradation system. products.