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20 Table 13. Dimensions of finite element models of the Chevrolet 2500 pickup truck. Dimension Original Chevrolet Chevrolet 2500 for Chevrolet 2500 for 2500 for TTI Test UNL Test MGA Test Width 195.4 cm 195.4 cm 195.5 cm Length 565.5 cm 565.4 cm 565.5 cm Height 179.2 cm 182.9 cm 185.4 cm Front Bumper height 63.6 cm 60.3 cm 68.1 cm Rear Bumper height 70.6 cm 79.9 cm 76.5 cm Tire Diameter 73.0 cm 73.0 cm 73.0 cm Weight 2013 kg 2011 kg 2014 kg Table 14. Barrier damage modes evaluated through finite element modeling. Damage Mode Field Example FE Model Rail and Post Deflection Missing Post Separated Rail / Post Rail Flattening 3.5 Validation of the Finite pled vehicle-roadside hardware models, (2) validation against Element Models full-scale crash tests involving damaged barrier, and (3) vali- dation against component tests conducted with a pendulum Proper validation of the finite element models is crucial to impact rig. In each case, the finite element models were able the accuracy of the simulations. The validation plan for the to faithfully reproduce the corresponding impact experiment. finite element simulations was as follows: (1) validation of cou- Details of the validation studies are provided in the appendices.