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24 Field Example Pendulum Test Setup Pendulum Test Setup 4-in. Tear -in. Tear Figure 14. Vertical tear evaluated in pendulum tests. Figure 15. Test 03-2: overall damage (right) and post damage at splice (center) and non-splice location (right). that have sustained minor damage. Several of these damage modes have been tested with repeated tests, albeit with slightly different impact speeds. 4.2 Method of Introducing the Vertical Tear A vertical tear was simulated by cutting a "V" shaped notch in the w-beam using a reciprocating saw. The point at the end of the notch was intended to provide a stress concentrator similar to those observed in the field in a crash-induced ver- tical tear. In all vertical tear tests, the location of the tear cor- responded to the pendulum mass impact location, as this was believed to have the largest risk for rail rupture. Two dif- ferent length tears were tested: a 4-inch (102 mm) tear and a Figure 16. Test 03-5: overall damage. 0.5-inch (13 mm) tear. All tears started from the top of the