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14 Reference Guide on Understanding Common Use at Airports will affect the existing facilities and account for those costs accordingly. This may also require design and construction services. Assets Depending on the type of common-use implementation, the airport operator may need to procure additional assets. Assets could be purchased from the airlines (e.g., with passenger boarding bridges) or could be procured to replace airline assets (e.g., flight displays or ground servicing equipment). Business Drivers The following business drivers need to be considered when looking at common-use imple- mentation: Maximize existing facility utilization Avoid or defer capital costs Maximize facility flexibility Decrease the airport's cost of doing business Decrease the airline's cost of doing business Improve the quality of service to airlines Improve the quality of service to passengers Increase opportunities for airlines to add or expand service Gain a competitive advantage over other airports Other Industries When considering common use, it is also valuable to look at what industries outside the aviation industry are doing that might be related to common use. This section summarizes the research conducted by the research team in understanding similar efforts in related industries. A more detailed discussion of this section is provided in Appendix A6. Examples of the industries considered are Banking and finance Transportation (road, rail, air, and water transportation infrastructure, including computer- controlled just-in-time delivery systems, optimization of distribution through hubs, and traffic and operations centers consolidated into key locations, and regulation of the transport of hazardous materials) Public works (water supply, drainage, and wastewater) Power (electricity, oil, gas, and nuclear materials and power) Information and communications (telecommunications and information technology) Emergency services (emergency health services and public health) Fire departments and law enforcement agencies Agriculture and food (meat, poultry, and egg products) National monuments and icons Among the industries researched, transportation, public works, and power share many similarities: Heavy emphases on facility and infrastructure operations and maintenance Strong regulatory oversight Increasingly sophisticated, knowledgeable, and more demanding customers External effects of economy and energy costs greatly affect operational costs

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Common Use as Applied Throughout the Industry 15 The research reflects a combination of a literature review and interviews. For focus, the researcher team considered the following questions: What external drivers might influence another sector or industry to consider alternative ser- vice delivery options and/or business arrangements? What business functions and/or processes would most likely be considered for improvement? What role does technology play and what types of technology are considered in improve- ment initiatives? What underlying decision-making framework and considerations were in play with regard to change initiatives? External Drivers External drivers (e.g., increasing regulations, increasing customer demands, and increasing operational costs) lead industries to consider new ways to increase efficiency and effectiveness, thereby leading to increased customer service and satisfaction and decreased operating costs. Business Functions and/or Processes All of the above-mentioned industries have or are engaged in creative re-thinking and deci- sion making relative to service provision and delivery. These decisions involve a recognition and determination of the core business and/or services and trying to determine the best ways to con- tinue and move forward. Industries considered alternative service delivery or provision options and optimization in response to an ever-changing business environment. Research indicates that the term "common use" is not readily used outside the aviation industry; however, there were many examples of industries implementing common-use types of arrange- ments and actively considering alternative service delivery options. These arrangements typically were described in terms of contractual language and included outsourcing, strategic partnerships, collaborative partnerships, strategic alliances, inter-organizational relations, collaborative entre- preneurships, coalitions, and joint ventures, as well as inter-agency, inter-regional, and shared services. These arrangements also included public-private partnerships of which there are many forms (e.g., contract operations, concession, design-build, design-build-operate, build- own-operate-transfer, and asset sale). Technology Types and Role Information technology was viewed as integral to overall operations and in being able to meet business demands. Five prevailing strategies for information technology, as shown in Figure 2-4, were identified: Business Driven Real Time Mobile Integrated Secure Decision-Making Framework and Considerations Decision-making frameworks and considerations for change management were consistent across industries. Industries operate within a framework for improving performance with appropriate consideration for assessing and analyzing current performance, identifying key opportunities to

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16 Reference Guide on Understanding Common Use at Airports Figure 2-4. Technology types and roles. maintain effectiveness while improving efficiency, and developing a strategy for action. Key con- siderations include An effective improvement process Considering change management principles Assessment Strategic planning Tools for improvement No universal solution was identified within any industry or example reviewed. Organizations assessed their existing situations, cultures, and business to determine response to factors affect- ing their business. Plans and courses of action were tied to organizational strategies and business objectives. Action ranged from process improvement, training or re-skilling, and/or technology implementation to outsourcing to public-private partnerships.