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CHAPTER 3 Analysis and Implementation Considerations This chapter discusses analysis and implementation considerations associated with common use in terms of the following major operational areas: 1. Planning 2. Design and Construction 3. Terminal Operations 4. Airside Operations 5. Facilities Maintenance 6. Business Considerations 7. Technology Each area is discussed within a section. Within each of these sections, various common-use application areas at airports applicable to the respective operational area are discussed. Each sec- tion contains a brief summary, a description of the airport application area, and issues to con- sider. Details about the issues to be considered are discussed in various appendices. Planning This section provides information needed by airport operators in considering and planning for the many aspects of common use. The information in this section is built on in subsequent sections of this chapter. This section consists of the following: Initial Planning Steps--First steps that airport operators should consider when evaluating common use Airport Operational and Physical Characteristics--Viability and benefit of common use, when considering these issues Counting the Cost--Criteria to be used in helping the airport operator evaluate the viability of common use within the airport Airport Procedural Considerations--Important aspects for the airport operator to consider as plans are put in place to move to common use Note: Detailed information on each of these operational areas can be found in Appendix B1. Initial Planning Steps Description Three steps were identified as being essential to a successful implementation of common use: Develop a change in airport operator and airline way of thinking Thoroughly define the business reasons behind common use Include airlines as business partners 17

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18 Reference Guide on Understanding Common Use at Airports Issues to Consider 1. Develop a change in airport operator and airline way of thinking. Throughout the ranks of airport management and airline operations, common use is often considered an "IT" issue. Common use adds the best value when all divisions and management of air- ports, along with airline partners, contribute to the planning and business justification of implementations. 2. Thoroughly define the business reasons behind common use. There are business reasons why airport operators consider common use. Chapter 4 presents many of these reasons and includes tools to help airport operators determine their specific business reasons. 3. Include airlines as business partners. A common mistake for airport operators is to plan the implementation of common use without early input from airline business partners. Consider how best to keep airline partners active and participating in the ongoing planning and con- tinuous improvement process. For example Establish a loyal partner program, where criteria for the program are presented clearly to the airlines. Such criteria may include reaching a set threshold for years of continued service. As part of the program, consider special arrangements with airlines achieving loyal part- ner status. Airports noted successful relationships can be formed in a positive manner, specifically regarding preferential and non-exclusive-use arrangements. Some airports extended this status to the dominant carrier. Although airports reported success in imple- menting such programs, care must be taken not to alienate other airlines or violate Federal regulations regarding equal treatment of air carriers. Work with airline partners to include corporate airline staff as well the local station manager and staff. Airport Operational and Physical Characteristics Description Capacity constraints are not the only factor in determining the beneficial utilization of common use. Given that common use is not a "one-size-fits-all" solution, the operational and physical char- acteristics of an airport should be taken into account as well when considering the viability and benefit of common use. Three characteristics of an airport factor into the evaluation of common use. These are Airport Size Physical Configuration of the Airport Airline Operations within the Airport Issues to Consider 1. Airport Size. The FAA defines airport size by the percent of airline passenger enplanements and categorizes airports as "large, medium, small, or non-hub" (TRB, 2003, pp. 1112). Airport sizes, ranging from non-hub to large-hub are all finding benefit for common use. Small-hub airports increasingly are pursuing the implementation of common use. 2. Airport Physical Configuration. Airport physical configuration refers primarily to the lay- out of airport terminals, concourses, and baggage handling systems. Figure 3-1 compares these configurations. Much like airport size, physical configuration does not necessarily dic- tate the benefit of common use, but it can affect the viability of the implementation of com- mon use significantly. 3. Airline Operations. Within any of the airports, an airline may operate what is referred to as "hub" operations. An airline hub operation is an airport that an airline uses as a transfer point to get passengers to their intended destinations. Airline operations probably has the greatest affect on both viability and benefit for common-use installations.

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Analysis and Implementation Considerations 19 Figure 3-1. Physical airport configuration comparison. Counting the Costs of Common Use Description This section presents many of the aspects of common use where costs can be accumulated-- sometimes substantial, and often times, overlooked: Facility flexibility The true costs of owning common-use assets The true costs of services and support The costs of technology Chapter 4 provides further detail on cost issues. Issues to Consider 1. Initial Assessment of Use--Facility Flexibility. Facility flexibility is a key benefit of imple- menting common use. Many of the benefits associated with facility flexibility are identified in Chapter 4. In providing this flexibility, airport operators should consider the following: Adding the ability to use existing capacity during non-peak hours of operation. Doing so may or may not result in new flights. Limitations in check-in counter space. A typical common-use model is to maximize turns per gate, thereby avoiding "bricks and mortar" costs. Even though gate capacity may increase, an airport operator should ensure there is sufficient counter space to accommodate peak-hour operations. Limitations in check-in counter operations. As with limitations in space, the airport oper- ator must consider limitations with the operations of the check-in counters. Throughput capacity of in-line baggage screening compared with peak-operations under the planned common-use model. Potential choke points at security check points, as shown in Figure 3-2. Added congestion in hold room areas. 2. Assessing the True Costs of Ownership with Common-Use Assets. Common use typically results in airport operators owning and maintaining more of airport assets associated with the

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20 Reference Guide on Understanding Common Use at Airports Figure 3-2. Security check point--potential choke point. operation of a common-use gate or other common-use areas. As a result, airport operators often have to buy assets from airlines. In doing so, the following issues should be considered: Ascertain the true value of the airline asset at the time of acceptance. Consider the cost of upgrade or replacement of major assets (e.g., passenger boarding bridges) due to operational differences under common use. 3. Assessing the True Costs of Services and Support. Throughout this chapter, the costs of ser- vices and support are discussed. In planning for common use, airport operators should con- sider the service and support elements discussed throughout this chapter, along with the ones summarized here. This is not an easy assessment and takes continued re-evaluation. As one airport operator stated: "All airport divisions struggle with staffing issues. Over time, we have not had any real rationale for figuring out staffing needs: we try it to see what works." Airport operators should consider: Increases in operational hours support. Airlines are concerned that aviation organizations are typically static and not equipped to manage the dynamic environment of common use. Contract and labor issues. Organizational and contract hurdles can affect the support and operations of common-use gates. 4. Assessing the Costs of Technology. In planning for common use, airport operators should eval- uate how common use may affect existing technology infrastructure. Key considerations include Ownership of communications infrastructure and demarcation points between airport operator equipment and airline-owned equipment. Costs of supporting technology systems such as gate management and others. Operational costs of technology support. Emerging trends in technology that may affect common use. Airport Procedural Considerations Description In considering the successful implementation of common use, airport operators have noted several procedural considerations that must be assessed. Many of these considerations typically are included as part of the lease process for common-use gates.