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Analysis and Implementation Considerations 23 Issues to Consider During the design cycle, the effects of common use must be considered. Coordination with other design disciplines is essential. Construction Description Once a project has been fully designed and construction documents have been prepared, the construction process begins, depending on the delivery method. Although elements of the construction process can begin at different stages with the different delivery methods, the final construction documents will dictate when final construction of the project is started. During this time, constructability issues will surface, and many elements could affect com- mon use. Issues to Consider 1. In-Field Design Changes. The design of a project probably will be changed as physical con- struction begins. Technology and operations liaisons should be considered for construction projects that include common use. Airlines should be coordinated with during the construc- tion project to address in-field design changes. 2. Inspections. Inspecting is critical for any construction project. Inspectors will look for code and safety violations, but there also needs to be an inspection for usability of the space. Testing and Commissioning Description At the end of the construction project, but prior to beneficial use of the space, testing and com- missioning must occur to ensure that the systems needed to support common use are operating properly and will support the airlines' business processes. Issues to Consider 1. Effects on passenger processing flow 2. Effects on existing facility systems and technology 3. Test plans 4. Commissioning plans 5. Final acceptance Terminal Operations This section discusses operational issues and opportunities for areas inside the airport facil- ity, when considering a common-use installation. Relevant areas of effect and services include the following: Check-in Counter Assignments Gate Area Assignments Passenger Processing in Shared-Use Areas Airline Back Office Terminal Security Terminal Services Operation Janitorial Services Curbside Note: Detailed information on each of these operational areas can be found in Appendix B3.

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24 Reference Guide on Understanding Common Use at Airports Terminal Check-in Area and Curbside Operations Description This section discusses the issues and opportunities of a common-use installation within the airport terminal check-in area (see Figure 3-4) and curbside check-in areas. Airline concerns and opportunities are noted first, followed by concerns and opportunities drawn from the experi- ence of airport operators. Issues to Consider 1. Airline Business Issues and Opportunities. Airlines noted several business reasons why common use may be a viable solution for counter and self-service check-in. Many of the rea- sons are the result of proper planning and implementation of the business issues and oppor- tunities. Airlines typically are against common-use installations where the installation hin- ders the airline business process. For the airline, the business process dictates the counter configuration. 2. Airline Operational Issues and Opportunities. Airlines invest substantially in evaluating passenger flow methodologies. Once a methodology is established, the airline begins to migrate all check-in counter operations to the new model. Airlines noted that common use can affect their passenger flow methodologies adversely, if not properly planned for. Self-service check-in is an increasingly important element of processing passengers through the check-in process. Airlines are opposed to common-use self-service (CUSS) when it hinders the airline's operational process for self-service check-in. Airlines noted that the size of their airport operation is not the primary decision factor. If the airport is not facility-constrained, it typically does not make sense to the airline to be forced to share gates and counters or to pay for a common-use system. In such cases, the air- port operator should prepare and present its business case analysis. Figure 3-4. Terminal check-in area.

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Analysis and Implementation Considerations 25 Airlines expressed concern that airline operations must not be affected by airport outages of any kind. In providing common use, airport operators should plan to mitigate outages caused by the common-use system. Airlines expressed considerable concern about the risk of lost functionality with the common-use system, when compared with the functionality the airline-specific systems provide to each operation. 3. Airline Facilities Issues and Opportunities. Airlines noted that when common use is planned and implemented appropriately, it can provide a proper level of facility flexibility. Generally speaking, some counters controlled by the airport operator and available for overflow and so forth are seen as beneficial. Common-use space can sometimes be space-constrained. Airlines noted that common baggage sort and baggage screening areas can tend to be space-constrained. Airport operators should work with the airlines in planning for common-use spaces. Airlines noted a need to coordinate storage space requirements, especially in gate and ticket counter areas. 4. Airport Performance Issues and Opportunities. The following performance and operations related items were addressed by airport operators with regard to applying common use in the terminal check-in area: Establishing the Performance Criteria. Airport operators should work closely with airlines in establishing performance criteria for check-in areas. Establishing the Operational Criteria. Airport operators should work closely with airlines in establishing the operational criteria for check-in areas. Define the function of the counters. Using the performance and operational characteristics established, airport operators can then layout optimum counter configurations and queu- ing areas. Define counter configurations suited for check-in space. Figure 3-5 illustrates how a counter module might look after this step is complete. 5. Curbside Check-In. Depending on the airport, curbside check-in may or may not be a significant part of the airport's processing of passenger check-in--there is no clear trend. Figure 3-5. Counter module example.

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26 Reference Guide on Understanding Common Use at Airports Airport operators and airlines see added flexibility to curbside check-in through the use of self-service check-in kiosks. As with terminal check-in counters, airport operators may expe- rience similar benefits and obstacles for curbside check-in. Two significant hurdles that most airports must overcome when moving to common use for curbside check-in is how to process bags from multiple carriers and training the staff performing the check-in under each airline's host system that may operate from that counter. 6. Passenger Queuing and Processing. Designing the check-in facility to provide optimum pro- cessing of passengers is a primary emphasis for airport operators and airlines. 7. Staffing Considerations. Improving the use of passenger self-service can increase the need for passenger assistance. Also, with common use, airport operators often are called on to assist passengers. Two positions should be considered: Terminal Operations FTE Airline Affairs FTE 8. Accessibility. Accessibility issues arise with the areas in which passengers interface. For check- in areas, this includes self-service check-in kiosks and graphic display devices. Graphic display devices can include wayfinding, airline information, and flight information displays. Further discussion on accessibility issues in these areas is in the Technology section of this Chapter. Gate Area Description This section discusses the issues and opportunities of a common-use installation within the airport terminal gate area. Issues regarding the airside and ramp control areas of the gate are dis- cussed later in this Chapter. Airline-specific concerns and opportunities are noted first and are followed by concerns and opportunities drawn from the experience of airport operators. Issues to Consider 1. Airline Issues and Opportunities. Airline issues and opportunities regarding common-use gate operations are presented in the Airside Operations section of this Chapter. Specific to the gate, in relation to other terminal areas, the airlines noted that they prefer their back offices near their gates. 2. Airport Issues and Opportunities. Performance-related items were addressed by airport operators with regard to applying common use in the terminal gate areas. Few U.S. airports are fully configured for common use throughout all gates. However, several airport operators are considering a phased-in approach to common use. Regarding the management of common-use gates, airport operators require routine monitoring of gate activity. Although gates are common use, over time, airlines may install proprietary equipment at the gates they normally operate from. In the layout of the gate area, airport operators should consider the use of passenger self-service kiosks in key gate area locations. Related Terminal Services Description This section discusses the terminal services typically associated with common-use installa- tions. Airline concerns and opportunities are noted first and are followed by concerns and opportunities drawn from the experience of airport operators. Issues to Consider 1. Airline Issues and Opportunities. Airlines generally are in favor of airport operators provid- ing terminal services as noted in this section, provided that costs and service standards are carefully planned for.