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22 Guidebook for Implementing Passenger Rail Service on Shared Passenger and Freight Corridors reduce the chance that further analyses will be required to address points raised by the railroad that were not fully covered in the feasibility study. The operations analysis is likely to be the critical step in the analysis, as it will define what is and is not possible on the corridor and the capital cost of achieving service goals. Capacity and operations analyses generally use models that simulate train operations (see Section 3.2) to determine what infrastructure improvements are needed to accommodate defined passenger and freight service. The process usually starts with a professional estimate of what is needed for the initial service, then progressively adds investments to increase speeds in slow areas and elim- inate bottlenecks. The process ends when desired journey times are achieved and total delays are at acceptable levels for both passenger and freight operations. The analysis is repeated for each stage in proposed service development. Although capacity analysis can be costly and time con- suming on a busy and complex corridor, this need not be the case on simpler corridors. For example, the analyses for the Downeaster service were accomplished with simple train perform- ance calculations (for journey time and scheduling) and manual string chart analysis (for capac- ity). The string charts were used to determine the placement of additional passing sidings. It is essential to consider rolling stock needs in the feasibility study. The host railroad will want to know what is proposed in case there are operations and safety issues, and train power-to- weight ratio and traction characteristics affect performance. If an operation exceeding 79 mph or the use of non-FRA-compliant equipment is under consideration, both the FRA Office of Safety and the host railroad will need to agree to the proposed operation, including the required PTC capabilities. Also, unless Amtrak can confirm the availability of equipment for when initial service starts, the passenger agency may have to acquire new or second-hand equipment, which can be a lengthy process. Under RSIA of 2008, and currently proposed FRA regulations for its implementation, most intercity and commuter passenger corridors must be equipped with PTC or its equivalent. If the corridor is not already in the host railroad's PTC program, it will have to be added in most cases, and the railroad's installation plans modified accordingly. These plans and presumably any subsequent modifications must be approved by the FRA. The FRA is still finalizing PTC requirements and procedures, and those involved with a passenger rail initiative must track developments and be ready to incorporate the requirements into investment plans, cost esti- mates, and implementation schedules. The FRA may impose additional train control, opera- tions, and safety requirements (for example, at grade crossings) if the use of non-compliant equipment is proposed or speeds are in excess of 79 mph. 2.4 Substantive Negotiations Substantive negotiations regarding shared corridor access, operations, and costs can begin when the feasibility study is complete, preferably with buy-in from the host railroad, or at least an indi- cation that proposed infrastructure upgrades will be sufficient to allow the planned initial service as well as to meet legitimate freight railroad service requirements. As always, negotiations for intercity service that makes use of Amtrak's access rights must involve Amtrak. Because several of the issues that have to be negotiated are likely to be already covered by existing Amtrakhost railroad agreements, and others can follow established Amtrak practice, negotiations for a new intercity service are usually much simpler than for commuter service. With commuter service, the passenger rail agency, with its professional advisors, must conduct negoti- ations directly with the host railroad. Before individual technical issues that are likely to be factors in the negotiations are discussed, the following general points about the approach to negotiations should be considered: Keep negotiations focused on thorough analyses of capacity, operations, and costs to find prac- tical solutions that meet all parties' needs. As far as possible, avoid being drawn into arguments