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28 Guidebook for Implementing Passenger Rail Service on Shared Passenger and Freight Corridors Passenger station requirements raise a number of unique issues for infrastructure investments and train operations. The passenger agency will likely need to purchase or lease land from the host railroad for station buildings and parking areas. Stations will need vehicular and pedes- trian access, which may involve crossing active tracks. For safety reasons, pedestrian crossings at grade are considered very hazardous and may not be permitted in some situations. Grade- separated pedestrian crossings are costly and raise Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) accessibility issues. Another primary issue for shared operations is providing adequate phys- ical clearance for freight operations, at the same time as meeting ADA requirements for boarding trains. Some aspects of safety are likely to arise that can affect proposed passenger operations. Liability fears may cause a freight railroad host to restrict the use of non-FRA-compliant passenger equip- ment, even on parallel tracks and independent of FRA approvals. Operation of freight trains through passenger stations while passenger trains are loading may be restricted, depending on sta- tion layout, which can affect capacity. The FRA may impose conditions on some operations, espe- cially those over 79 mph, relating to PTC capabilities, track-to-track separation, and roadway worker activities, etc. All these matters must be resolved and factored into operations analyses and infrastructure improvement plans. 2.4.3 Capital and Operations and Maintenance Costs Most of the technical issues relating to estimating capital and operating costs and how they should be shared between the host railroad and the passenger service are discussed in Chapter 3. This section discusses how and where these estimates play into negotiations with the host railroad. Capital Costs Capital costs are for infrastructure improvements to add capacity to a rail corridor and to upgrade track and signal systems to support the desired passenger service performance. Earlier stages in the negotiation will have provided a list of projects needed for each passenger service development stage and to accommodate forecast freight traffic. Estimates of the cost of each proj- ect will likely be developed by the host railroad, because it will be the contractor for the work (see Sections 4.3.5 and 4.4.4 for Amtrak intercity and commuter service, respectively). The negotiations will center on the share of project costs, if any, to be contributed by the host railroad. Generally, the host railroad will be more willing to consider contributing a share of the investment cost if the proposed project provides tangible benefits to freight operations and is aligned with the host rail- road's business and investment plans. It is harder to convince a host freight railroad to contribute if the benefits are limited and/or if the corridor is not a key link in its network. It may take the posi- tion that other investments have a higher priority. In most cases, the passenger rail agency must contract directly with the host railroad for capital improvements to track signals and structures. Many railroads have labor agreements that restrict the use of non-railroad contractors for specific kinds of work, independent of the funding source. Also, on an active railroad, railroad managers must coordinate construction work with train oper- ations. Even on projects for an intercity corridor, Amtrak is not normally involved with capital improvement projects unless it is the owner of the corridor. Operations and Maintenance Costs In the case of Amtrak intercity service, Amtrak has existing operating agreements with most railroads, which can be extended or adapted for a new corridor, depending on the circumstances at that time and place. The passenger rail agency is an interested party, as it will be compensating Amtrak for costs not covered by fare box receipts, but Amtrak and the host railroad are the prin- cipals in the negotiation. If Amtrak and the host railroad cannot agree, they can ask the NAP or