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44 Guidebook for Implementing Passenger Rail Service on Shared Passenger and Freight Corridors Lease new equipment. This approach converts the capital costs into a periodic payment, which becomes part of ongoing expenses. Whether leasing is attractive to a public agency depends on how accounting practices and funding arrangements treat capital leases. Discussion of the financial implications of leasing is beyond the scope of this Guidebook. In some cases, a capital lease may be bundled with equipment maintenance services. Fund rehabilitation of existing out-of-service cars in Amtrak's fleet. In recent times, Amtrak owned a substantial number of out-of-service cars, which it could not afford to repair. Funding repair gives the passenger rail agency assured availability of cars for a pro- posed service at reduced cost. Exact terms of an agreement have to be worked out with Amtrak and would depend on the details of the rehabilitation project and the expected remaining service life of the cars. Use Amtrak-provided cars, the cost of which will be included with Amtrak's charges for train operations and equipment maintenance for the proposed service. In recent years, Amtrak has lacked funds to purchase new cars or to rehabilitate more than a minimum number of out-of-service cars. This meant Amtrak was unable to provide cars for new intercity services, and passenger rail agencies had to adopt one of the previously mentioned alternatives. Since PRIIA (2008) and ARRA (2009), however, Amtrak is pressing ahead with plans to specify and acquire new cars both to replace life-expired equipment and build its fleet to support new services. Commuter Service Purchase new equipment as previously described for intercity service. Lease new equipment as previously described for intercity service. Acquire existing commuter equipment suitable for the proposed service, by outright pur- chase, long-term capital lease, or short-term lease of temporarily surplus cars from another commuter rail agency. An example of a short-term lease was the temporary use of Sound Transit Bombardier cars by VRE and Los Angeles Metrolink until increases in demand and service frequency in Seattle required their return. As well as selecting equipment for a specific service and developing a process for obtaining suitable equipment, the passenger rail agency has to determine the number of cars required. Fleet planning can be a simple manual process for smaller passenger services, usually involv- ing calculating trip and terminal turn-around times and designing a schedule for a few train sets. For example, the New England Downeaster service is operated with only two train sets. For more complex operations, a computer simulation can help optimize fleet operations. For example, SYSTRA's RAILSIM package has a module that provides this capability. There can be substantial cost leverage in good fleet planning. For example, it was possible to add service frequencies on California's Capitol Corridor without adding train sets by reducing layover and turn-around times and rescheduling some trips. Similarly, the proposals to extend the Downeaster service to Brunswick, Maine, can be managed without adding train sets by using layover time in Portland, Maine. 3.3.5 Signaling and Train Control Capital Costs Issues related to train control systems should be resolved in capital planning and, in the future, will inevitably be centered around meeting PTC requirements in the RSIA. New advanced tech- nology PTC systems have been an area of research interest in the railroad industry for over 20 years. The primary function of PTC is to enforce safe speeds at all times to prevent collisions, over- speed events, travel over misaligned switches, and intrusion into work zones. More advanced versions of PTC may also provide capacity benefits from moving block train spacing, more pre- cise speed control, and location management.