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Introduction, Background, and Purpose 7 the freight railroad partner, and information on how to keep all stakeholders informed with- out betraying confidential information. Methods to determine requirements for increased capacity and upgrades to track and signal- ing systems, accommodating both the planned passenger service and expected freight traffic, estimating the specific investments required, and determining how such investment could be shared between public and private sources. Related matters are technical regulatory require- ments for track quality and signal system capabilities for passenger service, models used for capacity analysis, and how to allow for future growth of passenger and freight traffic. Methods to arrive at equitable sharing of ongoing operations, maintenance, and replacement expenditures to ensure that the corridor will provide the required level of service for all users. This area includes cost modeling methods; how to adjust for infrastructure investments made by the passenger agency; and the effects of train speed, axle load, grade, and curvature on costs. Methods and processes to address further corridor development related to operating experi- ence and increased passenger and freight traffic, including both capital improvements and sharing ongoing O&M costs. Almost all shared rail corridors are works in progress rather than one-time developments. Both parties expect traffic volumes and service quality expectations to change over time, and provisions must be made for agreements to be updated to reflect these changing business conditions. Principles, methods, and processes for reaching agreement on the ongoing management of passenger rail service quality, including performance criteria, dispatching priorities, OTP, and track quality. 1.3.3 Content This Guidebook identifies what principles, processes, and methods contribute to the success- ful development and operation of passenger rail services on shared-use corridors. It also pro- vides suggestions for improvements that would address deficiencies in present practices and further enhance the success of passenger rail services. The information is provided by subject area, roughly following the sequence of actions needed to implement and sustain a successful passenger rail service. A discussion of relevant legal and institutional factors that will underlie passenger rail service through the implementation process--including those factors regarding access rights, liability, and cost sharing--is available in Appendix B. This Guidebook is laid out in the following chapters: Chapter 2: Getting Started and Negotiations. This chapter covers the initial steps of defining what kind of service is planned and on what kind of railroad route(s), essential homework that must be done before contacting the railroad and Amtrak (where applicable), and integration with other activities (such as state planning, freight railroad initiatives, funding and grant applications, environmental analyses, etc., where applicable). Chapter 3: Analysis and Modeling. This chapter describes the key types of analysis needed to support shared-use planning, feasibility studies, and negotiations. The subjects discussed include rail line capacity analysis, estimating capital costs needed to provide sufficient capac- ity and service quality for passenger service, and analysis of ongoing operations and infrastruc- ture costs. Descriptions of the tools and analysis methods available in each of these analysis areas are provided. Chapter 4: Content of Shared-Use Access and Operating Agreements. This chapter includes types of agreement between all interested parties, including the passenger rail service sponsor, the freight railroad, Amtrak (for intercity and long-distance service), O&M contractors (where applicable), other passenger rail operators using the same corridor, and any other involved

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8 Guidebook for Implementing Passenger Rail Service on Shared Passenger and Freight Corridors parties. There is also a discussion of terms of agreements (re-negotiation intervals), agree- ments for infrastructure investments, service quality guarantees and incentives, and similar material. Chapter 5: Ongoing Management of Shared-Use Operations. This chapter provides guidance on service quality monitoring, management and incentive schemes, approaches to periodic updating of shared-track contract details within the framework of an operating agreement, approaches to addressing service quality problems (such as poor OTP), and managing ongoing relationships with all stakeholders having a bearing on service quality. Appendices cover the following subjects: Appendix A: The U.S. Railroad Industry. This appendix provides a summary of the evolu- tion of the railroad industry, which led to the current industry structure. This is followed by descriptions of the types of passenger and freight railroads, federal agencies concerned with railroads, and the roles of principal railroad industry and professional associations. Appendix B: U.S. Railroad Legal and Institutional Arrangements. This appendix describes statutes, regulations, and standards applicable to the general railroad system of the United States. These include the rights and duties of Amtrak regarding access to the railroad network, the cost of that access, the criteria that determine whether a rail passenger service is consid- ered intercity or commuter, labor relations, FRA safety regulations, functions of the STB, and related matters. Appendix C: Railroad Safety Regulations. This appendix provides a detailed description of railroad safety regulations and standards as developed and administered by the FRA and how they may impact passenger rail plant, equipment, and operations. Appendix D: Case Studies of Passenger Rail Service Developments and Processes. This appendix provides examples of passenger rail developments including descriptions of how existing arrangements evolved, how the present situation differs from that in earlier times, recent examples of successful services, and applications of key processes.