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72 Guidebook for Implementing Passenger Rail Service on Shared Passenger and Freight Corridors high-quality service and for cost savings. The contracts must also allow for periodic cost adjust- ments to reflect inflation and for the commuter rail agency to adjust service where needed in response to travel demand or budget constraints. 4.5 Managing Change in Agreements This section discusses approaches to managing the service evolution over time in response to market and financial developments. As discussed in Chapter 5, recommended practice for passenger rail agencies is to negotiate a long-term master access agreement (20 years or more) to give security that a successful service will be able to continue but to arrange for periodic agreement revisions to accommodate changes to both host and tenant services. Likewise, Amtrak maintains operating agreements with all the host railroads, with the ability to modify these agreements to accommodate a new or changed service. In particular, Amtrak can demand that the host railroad accommodate additional trips and raise speeds. However, Amtrak (or a passenger rail agency) must fund track and signal improvements, if required to accommodate the planned changes. Typical revision procedures for access agreements used by passenger rail agencies and Amtrak for operations on a host freight railroad are presented in the following subsections. 4.5.1 Major Revision to Provide for a Substantial Increment in Capacity and/or Service Performance This type of revision should take place at intervals of several years, 5 years being a common choice. More frequent revisions can lead to a time-consuming and confusing state of continu- ous negotiation. The revisions should include changes that all users expect over the period to the next revision, including increases in passenger and freight traffic, capital investments in capac- ity, measures to reduce journey time, and any associated changes in cost-sharing formulas and agreements. The primary constraint on changes is that they should fall within the scope of the master agreement and long-term plan, unless all parties agree to amend this agreement and plan. The actual changes agreed to in the revisions would be implemented over the period to the next major revision. Not every service will warrant this level of revision. If services are limited in scope, or do not involve a major capital investment or expansion of service, then a formal revision is not required. In those circumstances, a less sweeping change, as described in the following subsection, is appropriate. Major revisions are often accompanied by an update to any capacity and cost analysis for the route, especially where the estimates and assumptions concerning traffic levels, track condition, etc., may have become outdated. 4.5.2 Minor Agreement Revisions to Provide a Limited Service Addition or Performance Improvement A minor revision could be used to implement an additional round trip or a reduction in jour- ney time by a few minutes or to add freight facilities, such as a new industry connection. Operations after the change would still be within the parameters agreed to in the master contract and the most recent major revision. Usually, minor revisions would not trigger any change to cost- sharing formulas agreed upon by host and tenant, or involve significant capital investments. Limited investments may be involved, for projects like adding a passing siding or improving curve geometry to increase speed.