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84 Guidebook for Implementing Passenger Rail Service on Shared Passenger and Freight Corridors 1976: Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act. This act implemented many of the rec- ommendations of the U.S. Railroad Association for restructuring the northeast U.S. railroad net- work, including creating the Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail) to take ownership of the bankrupt freight railroads, transferring the Northeast Corridor to Amtrak, and providing sub- stantial funding for physical improvements. 1973: Regional Rail Reorganization Act (the 3-R Act). This act initiated the process of restructuring the Northeast railroads after the PennCentral bankruptcy, by creating the U.S. Railway Association, tasked with developing a long-term restructuring plan. 1970: Rail Passenger Service Act, with later amendments. This legislation established Amtrak to manage the U.S. intercity and long-distance passenger rail network. 1934: Railroad Retirement Act. This act established the railroad retirement system to provide pen- sions for retired railroad employees, which, with numerous amendments, has continued to the present day. 1926: Rail Labor Act (RLA). With numerous subsequent amendments, this legislation specified how relations between railroad management and the railroad trades union are to be conducted. Government Accountability Office (GAO) Reports (Reverse chronological order) The content of GAO Reports is usually obvious from the title, thus notes on the content are omit- ted from this section of the bibliography. 2009: High Speed Passenger Rail--Effectively Using Recovery Act Funds for High Speed Rail Projects. Report GAO-09-786T, June. 2009: High Speed Passenger Rail--Future Development Will Depend on Addressing Financial and Other Challenges and Establishing a Clear Federal Role. Report GAO-09-417, March. 2009: Commuter Rail--Many Factors Influence Liability and Indemnity Provisions and Options Exist to Facilitate Negotiations. Report GAO-09-282, February. 2006: Active Commuter Rail Agency Service Contracts. Letter to Honorable Richard C. Shelby, Chairman, Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs, United States Senate. Document GAO-06-820R, July. 2005: Testimony before the Subcommittee on Railroads, Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, House of Representatives. Amtrak--Acela's Continued Problems Underscore the Importance of Meeting Broader Challenges in Managing Large-Scale Projects. Report GAO-05-698T, May. 2004: Commuter Rail--Information and Guidance Could Help Facilitate Commuter and Freight Rail Access Negotiations. GAO Report GAO-04-240. Federal Government Regulations and Industry Technical Standards American Railway Engineering and Maintenance Association (AREMA). Communications and Signaling Manual (current edition). This manual contains technical standards for the design, instal- lation and maintenance of railroad signal and train control and communications systems. The manual is regularly modified and updated to reflect changing industry needs and the introduction of new technologies, as well as changes in FRA safety regulations and railroad service needs.