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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 654 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Evaluation and Repair Procedures for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Girders with Longitudinal Cracking in the Web

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Randell H. Iwasaki, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of February 2010.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 654 Evaluation and Repair Procedures for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Girders with Longitudinal Cracking in the Web Maher K. Tadros UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA-LINCOLN Lincoln, NE Sameh S. Badie GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY Washington, DC Christopher Y. Tuan UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA-LINCOLN Lincoln, NE Subscriber Categories Bridges and Other Structures Highways Materials Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 654 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 18-14 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN 978-0-309-11835-4 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2010926177 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT INFORMATION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed research directly to those who are in a position to use them. or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 654 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs David B. Beal, Senior Program Officer, Retired Waseem Dekelbab, Senior Program Officer Danna Powell, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT 18-14 PANEL Field of Materials and Construction--Area of Concrete Materials Edward P. Wasserman, Tennessee DOT, Nashville, TN (Chair) Andre V. Pavlov, Florida DOT, Tallahassee, FL William E. Cook, Nebraska Concrete Paving Association, Lincoln, NE Paul Finnerty, Maryland State Highway Administration, Hanover, MD Z. John Ma, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN Michael R. Pope, California DOT, Sacramento, CA Chuck Prussack, Central Pre-Mix Prestress Company, Spokane, WA Richard B. Stoddard, Washington State DOT, Tumwater, WA Joey Hartmann, FHWA Liaison Stephen F. Maher, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By Waseem Dekelbab Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report establishes a user's manual for the acceptance, repair, or rejection of precast/ prestressed concrete girders with longitudinal web cracking. The report also proposes revi- sions to the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications and provides recommendations to develop improved crack control reinforcement details for use in new girders. The material in this report will be of immediate interest to bridge engineers. Precast/prestressed concrete girders are widely used in the United States for bridge con- struction. Longitudinal web cracks have been observed during prestress transfer, particu- larly at the ends of girders. With the use of higher strength concrete, deeper girders, and sig- nificantly higher prestress forces, these cracks are becoming more prevalent and, in some cases, larger. Reactions to these cracks have ranged from doing nothing to rejecting girders. Other reactions include debonding strands at the ends, reducing permissible prestress force, reducing allowable compression stress at the time of transfer, injecting sealants into cracks, and coating the ends of girders with sealants. Clearly, there is no consensus on the causes of longitudinal cracking and what level of longitudinal cracking is unacceptable. A thorough understanding of whether longitudinal web cracks are of structural signifi- cance is needed. If these cracks are not structurally significant, an understanding of whether they reduce durability is required. Although published guidance exists regarding acceptance and repair criteria, these documents need validation. The research was performed under NCHRP Project 18-14 by the University of Nebraska Lincoln with the assistance of the George Washington University, Washington, DC. The project established procedures for the acceptance, repair, or rejection of precast/prestressed concrete girders with longitudinal web cracking. A user's manual for the application of these procedures was prepared. The report also provides recommendations for improved crack control reinforcement details for use in new girders, and proposes revisions to Article 5.10.10 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications as warranted. Appendices A through G from the research agency's final report are not published herein but are available on the TRB website. These appendixes are titled as follows. Appendix A--Literature Review Appendix B--National Survey Appendix C--Structural Investigation & Full-Scale Girder Testing Appendix D--Sealant Specifications Appendix E--ASTM Specifications Appendix F--Field Inspection of Bridges Appendix G--Design Examples of End Zone Reinforcement

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AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 18-14 by the Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska, and the Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. The work undertaken at George Wash- ington University was under individual subcontract with the University of Nebraska Lincoln. Maher K. Tadros, the Leslie D. Martin Professor of Civil Engineering, Department of Civil Engineer- ing, University of Nebraska Lincoln, was the principal investigator and an author of this report. Sameh S. Badie, Associate Professor of Civil Engineering, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, George Washington University, was a co-principal investigator and an author of this report. Christopher Y. Tuan, Professor of Civil Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska Lincoln, was a co-principal investigator. The authors would like to express their gratitude to Mark Lafferty, Vice President/General Manager, Concrete Industries Inc., Lincoln, Nebraska, and Steve Seguirant, Vice President and Director of Engi- neering, Concrete Technology Corporation (CTC), Tacoma, Washington, who served as consultants on this project, not only for their technical contributions during the various phases of the project, but also for their generous donations of the girders used for testing. The authors also wish to thank Todd Culp of Coreslabs, Inc., Omaha, Nebraska, for his timely coordination in the storage and transportation of the donated girders shipped to Omaha for testing. Also, the authors would like to thank Chad Saunders and Joe Rose of Bayshore Concrete Products Corporation, Cape Charles, Virginia; Don Thomson of Construc- tion Products, Inc., Jackson, Tennessee; and Standard Concrete Products, Inc., Tampa, Florida, for their generous donations of the girders used for testing. The authors would like to thank Mark Traynowicz, State Bridge Engineer; the engineers and personnel of the Bridge Division of the Nebraska Department of Roads (NDOR); Julius F.J. Volgyi, Assistant State Structure and Bridge Engineer; William F. Via, Material Engineer; Christopher R. Williams, Structures and Bridge Safety Inspection Engineer; and the engineers and personnel of the Structure and Bridge Divi- sion of the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) for their help and support, which allowed the authors to inspect many concrete bridges in Nebraska and Virginia. The following individuals provided assistance during various phases of the project: Gary L. Krause, Associate Professor; Kromel Hanna, Assistant Research Professor; Christie J. Hasenkamp, research grad- uate student; and Kelvin J. Lein, Senior Laboratory Technician at the University of Nebraska Lincoln, as well as Amir Arab, George Washington University PhD candidate. Their assistance and contributions are greatly appreciated and acknowledged.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 4 Chapter 1 Background 4 1.1 Problem Statement 4 1.2 Control of Cracking in Concrete Structures 4 1.2.1 Evolution of Permissible Crack Widths 7 1.2.2 Sources of End Zone Cracking 9 1.2.3 Design of End Zone Reinforcement 10 1.3 Methods and Materials Used for Repair 10 1.3.1 Epoxy Injection Procedure by PCI Manual for the Evaluation and Repair of Precast, Prestressed Concrete Bridge Products 11 1.3.2 Batching Materials and Sealants 11 1.4 Objective and Scope of the Research 11 1.5 Applicability of Results to Highway Practice 12 1.6 Organization of the Report 13 Chapter 2 Research Approach 15 Chapter 3 Research Findings 15 3.1 National Survey 16 3.2 Structural Investigation and Full-Scale Girder Testing 16 3.2.1 Introduction 17 3.2.2 Description of the Test Specimens and Test Setup 21 3.2.3 Test Setup 22 3.2.4 Test Results 30 3.2.5 Full-Scale Testing Conclusions 32 3.3 Epoxy Injection Testing 32 3.3.1 Introduction 32 3.3.2 Description of the Test Specimens 35 3.3.3 Preparation of the Test Specimens 36 3.3.4 Test Results 38 3.3.5 Discussion and Conclusions 40 3.4 Durability Testing 40 3.4.1 Introduction 40 3.4.2 Durability Test, Stage I 42 3.4.3 Durability Test, Stage II 47 3.4.4 Durability Test, Stage III 49 3.4.5 Chemical Composition of the Sealers 49 3.5 Field Inspections of Bridges 49 3.5.1 Introduction 50 3.5.2 Nebraska Department of Roads (NDOR) 53 3.5.3 Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) 58 3.5.4 Bridge Field Inspection Conclusions

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58 3.6 Manual of Acceptance, Repair, or Rejection 59 3.7 Improved Crack Control Reinforcement Details for Use in New Girders 61 3.8 Proposed Revisions to the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications 62 Chapter 4 Conclusions, Recommendations, and Suggested Future Research 62 4.1 Conclusions 62 4.2 Implementation of Research Findings in Highway Communities 63 4.3 Suggestions for Future Research 64 References 65 Appendices