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64 References 1. Reis, E.R, Mozer, J.D., Bianchini, A.C., and Kesler, C.E., "Causes 10. "Fabrication and Shipment Cracks in Prestressed Hollow-Core and Control of Cracking with High Strength Steel Bars--A Review Slabs and Double Tees," PCI Committee on Quality Control of Research," Engineering Experiment Station, Bulletin 479. Performance Criteria, Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute 2. International Symposium on Bond and Crack Formation in Rein- (PCI), Chicago, IL, PCI Journal, Jan.Feb. 1983, Vol. 28, No. 1, forced Concrete (Stockholm 1957), V. 14, RILEM, Paris (Published pp. 1839. by Tekniska Hogskolans Rotaprintryekeri, Stockholm, 1958), 880 pp. 11. Manual for the Evaluation and Repair of Precast, Prestressed Concrete 3. Hognestad, E., "High Strength Bars as Concrete Reinforcement-- Bridge Products, Publication MNL-37-06, 2006, Precast/Prestressed Part 2: Control of Flexural Cracking," Journal, Portland Cement Concrete Institute (PCI), Chicago, IL, 66 pp. Association (PCA), Research and Development Laboratories, Vol. 4, 12. Mirza, J.F., and Tawfik, M.E., "End Cracking of Prestressed Mem- No. 1, Jan. 1962, pp. 4663. bers during Detensioning," PCI Journal, Vol. 23, No.2, Mar.Apr. 4. Kaar, P. H., and Mattock, A., "High Strength Bars as Concrete 1978, pp. 6778. Reinforcement--Part 4: Control of Cracking," Journal, Portland 13. Kannel, J., French, C., and Stolarski, H., "Release Methodology of Cement Association (PCA), Research and Development Laborato- Strands to Reduce End Cracking in Pretensioned Concrete Girders," ries, Vol. 5, No. 1, Jan. 1963, pp. 1538. PCI Journal, Vol. 42, No.1, Jan.Feb. 1997, pp. 4254. 5. "Strength and Serviceability Criteria, Reinforced Concrete Bridges: 14. Koyuncu, Y., Birgul, R., Ahlborn, T.M., and Aktan, H.M., "Identi- Ultimate Design," U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Pub- fying Causes for Distress Patterns in Prestressed Concrete I-Girder lic Roads, Aug. 1966, 81 pp. Bridges," TRB 82nd Annual Meeting, Transportation Research 6. Nawy, E.G., "Crack Control in Reinforced Concrete Structures," ACI Journal, American Concrete Institute, Vol. 65, No. 10, Oct. Board, Washington, D.C., 2003, Paper No. 03-2682. 1968, pp. 825836. 15. Marshall, W.T., and Mattock, A.H., "Control of Horizontal Crack- 7. ACI Committee 224, "Control of Cracking in Concrete Structures ing in the Ends of Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete Girders," PCI (ACI 224R-01)," ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Part 2, American Journal, Vol.7, No.5, Oct. 1962, pp. 5674. Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2001 (first edition released 16. Tuan, C.Y., Yehia, S.A., Jongpitaksseel, N., and Tadros, M.K., "End in early 1970s). Zone Reinforcement for Pretensioned Concrete Girders," PCI Jour- 8. Schiessl, P., "Admissible Crack Width in Reinforced Concrete Struc- nal, Vol. 49, No. 3, MayJune 2004, pp. 6882. tures," Preliminary Report, Vol. 2 of IABSE-FIP-CEB-RILEM-IASS, 17. Collins, M.P., and Mitchell, D., "Prestressed Concrete Structures," Colloquium, Leige, Jun. 1975. RESPONSE Publications, 1st ed, 1997. 9. Leonhardt, F., "Cracks and Crack Control in Concrete Structures," 18. AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, American Association PCI Journal, Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI), Chicago, of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 4th ed, 2007, with IL, Jul.Aug. 1988, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 124145. 2008 and 2009 interims, Washington, D.C.