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Errata Available for This Synthesis TCRP TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM SYNTHESIS 82 Transit Fare Arrangements for Public Employees Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration A Synthesis of Transit Practice

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TCRP OVERSIGHT TRANSPORTATION AND PROJECT COMMITTEE* ACRP OVERSIGHT RESEARCH BOARDRESEARCH TRANSPORTATION 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE SELECTION COMMITTEE* CHAIR CHAIR OFFICERS OFFICERS ANN AUGUST James Wilding Santee Wateree Regional Transportation CHAIR Chair: Adib K. : Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor Kanafani, of Cahill Civil Engineering, Professor University of Civil Engineering, of California, University Berkeley of California, Berkeley Independent Consultant Vice Chair: Michael VICE CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, R. Director of Morris, Transportation, Director North Central of Transportation, NorthTexas CentralCouncil of Texas Council of Authority Governments, Arlington Arlington Governments, MEMBERS VICE CHAIR Executive Director: EXECUTIVERobert E. DIRECTOR Skinner, : Robert E.Jr., Transportation Skinner, ResearchResearch Jr., Transportation Board Board JOHN BARTOSIEWICZ Jeff Hamiel McDonald Transit Associates MinneapolisSt. MICHAEL BLAYLOCK Paul MEMBERS MEMBERS Metropolitan Airports Commission Jacksonville Transportation Authority J. BARRY BARKER, Executive J. Barry Barker, Director, Executive Transit Director, Authority Transit of River Authority City,City, of River Louisville, KY KY Louisville, LINDA J. BOHLINGER ALLEN D. BIEHLER, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT,DOT, Harrisburg HNTB Corp. MEMBERS Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania Harrisburg LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Larry L. Brown, Director, Sr., Executive Mississippi Director, DOT, Mississippi Jackson DOT, Jackson RAUL BRAVO James Crites Raul V. Bravo & Associates DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Deborah H. Executive Butler, Vice President, Executive Vice Planning, President, and CIO, Planning, Norfolk and CIO, Southern Norfolk Southern Corporation, DallasFort Worth International Airport JOHN B. CATOE, JR. Richard de Neufville Corporation, Norfolk, Norfolk, VA VA Washington Metropolitan Massachusetts Area of Technology WILLIAM A.V. Transit Institute CLARK, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Authority Kevin C. Dolliole Los Angeles GREGORY Unison COOK Consulting David S. DAVID S. EKERN, Ekern, Commissioner, Commissioner, VirginiaVirginia DOT, Richmond DOT, Richmond Veolia Transportation John K. Duval Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department Professor, Department of Civil of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering, TERRY GARCIA BeverlyCREWS Municipal Airport Virginia, Charlottesville StarTran Kitty Freidheim University of Virginia, Charlottesville JEFFREY W. Jeffrey HAMIEL, W. Hamiel, Executive Executive Director,Director, Metropolitan Metropolitan Airports Airports Commission, Commission, Minneapolis, Minneapolis, MN MN KIM R. GREEN Freidheim Consulting GFI GENFARE EDWARD Edward A. (NED) A. (Ned) HELME, Helme, President, President, Center Center for for Clean Clean Air Air Policy,Policy, Washington, Washington, DC DC Steve Grossman ANGELA IANNUZZIELLO Jacksonville Aviation Authority RANDELL H. Randell IWASAKI, H. Iwasaki, Director, Director, California California DOT, DOT, Sacramento Sacramento ENTRA Consultants Tom Jensen Susan Martinovich, SUSAN MARTINOVICH, Director, Director, Nevada Nevada DOT, DOT, CarsonCarson City City JOHN INGLISH National Safe Skies Alliance DEBRA L. MILLER, Debra L. Secretary, Kansas Miller, Secretary, DOT, Topeka Kansas DOT, Topeka Utah TransitCatherine Authority M. Lang JEANNE W.Federal KRIEG NEIL J. PEDERSEN, Administrator, Neil J. Pedersen, Maryland Administrator, State Highway Maryland Administration, State Highway Baltimore Administration, Baltimore Aviation Administration PETE K. RAHN, Pete Director, MissouriMissouri K. Rahn, Director, DOT, Jefferson City City DOT, Jefferson Eastern Contra Costa Transit Gina Marie Lindsey Authority JONATHAN H.Angeles MCDONALD SANDRA ROSENBLOOM, Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, Professor University of Planning, of Arizona, University Tucson of Arizona, Tucson Los World Airports Stantec Consulting Carolyn Motz TRACY L. ROSSER, Tracy L. Vice Rosser, President, Vice Regional President, General Regional Manager, General Wal-Mart Manager, Stores, Wal-Mart Inc.,Inc., Mandeville, LA Stores, GARY W. M CNEIL Hagerstown Regional Airport Mandeville, LA Clausell Rountree, CEOGeneral Manager, Transroute International Canada Services, Inc., Rosa GO Transit Richard Tucker ROSA CLAUSELL ROUNTREE, MICHAEL P. MELANIPHY Pitt Meadows, BC CEOGeneral Manager, Transroute International Canada Huntsville International Airport Services, Inc., StevenPittT. Meadows, BC Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Scalzo, Chief Motor Coach Industries FRANK OTERO STEVEN T. SCALZO, Chief Operating Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Officer, Marine(retired), Jr., Chairman Resources Group, Seattle, Jacobs/Sverdrup WA Inc., St. Louis, MO Civil, EX OFFICIO MEMBERS PACO Technologies HENRY G. (GERRY) SCHWARTZ, JR., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin KEITH PARKER Sabrina Johnson St. Louis, MO Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando VIA Metropolitan Transit U.S. Environmental Protection Agency C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of PETER ROGOFF Texas, Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR Austin Richard Marchi FTA Airports Council International--NorthLINDA America S. WATSON, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando JEFFREY ROSENBERG Laura McKee STEVE EX OFFICIO WILLIAMS, Chairman MEMBERS and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR Amalgamated Transit Air Union Transport Association of America RICHARD SARLES Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Henry Ogrodzinski New Jersey Transit Corporation EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT National Association of State Aviation Officials MICHAEL SCANLON Melissa Sabatine THAD ALLEN J. Randolph (Adm., U.S. Babbitt, CoastAdministrator, Federal Aviation Guard), Commandant, U.S. CoastAdministration, U.S.DOT Guard, Washington, DC San Mateo County Transit American District Association of Airport Executives Rebecca M. Brewster, Research President and COO, American Transportation ResearchU.S.DOT Institute, Smyrna, G BEVERLY SCOTT PETER H. APPEL, Administrator, Innovative Technology Administration, Robert E. Skinner, Jr. J. RANDOLPH George Bugliarello, BABBITT, President Emeritus Administrator, and University Federal Aviation Professor, Polytechnic Administration, U.S.DOT Institute of New York Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Research Transportation Transit Authority Board JAMES STEM REBECCA M. BREWSTER, University, President Brooklyn; and Foreign COO, American Secretary, National Transportation Academy of Research Engineering, Institute, Washington, DC United Transportation Union Smyrna, GA James E. Caponiti, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT FRANK TOBEY SECRETARY GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute Cynthia Douglass, Acting Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety First TransitChristopher W. Jenks of New York Administration, University, Brooklyn; U.S.DOT Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, MATTHEWTransportation O. TUCKER Research Board Washington,LeRoyDC Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the North County Transit District PAM WARD JAMES E. CAPONITI,Interior, Acting Deputy Washington, DC Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Ottumwa Transit Authority CYNTHIA DOUGLASS, Acting Deputy Edward R. Hamberger, Administrator, President and CEO, Pipeline Associationand ofHazardous Materials Washington, American Railroads, Safety DC ALICE WIGGINS-TOLBERT Administration, John C.U.S.DOT Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Parsons Brinckerhoff LEROY GISHI, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of Officials, Washington, DC the Interior, Washington, Rose A. McMurry, DCActing Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DO EX OFFICIO MEMBERS WILLIAM W. MILLAR EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC Ronald Medford, Acting Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, APTA JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and TransportationU.S.DOT Officials, Washington, DC ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR. TRB Victor ROSE A. MCMURRY, M. Acting Mendez, Administrator, Deputy Federal Administrator, Highway Federal Administration, Motor Carrier SafetyU.S.DOT Administration, JOHN C. HORSLEY U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC AASHTO Peter M. Rogoff, RONALD MEDFORD, Acting Administrator, Federal Transit Deputy Administrator, Administration, National Highway TrafficU.S.DOT Safety Administration, VICTOR MENDEZ FHWA U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT VICTOR M. Polly Trottenberg, MENDEZ, Assistant Administrator, Secretary Federal for Transportation Highway Policy, U.S.DOT Administration, U.S.DOT TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR WILLIAM W. Robert L. Van MILLAR, AntwerpAmerican President, (Lt. Gen., Public U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers Transportation and Commanding Association, Washington, DCGeneral, LOUIS SANDERS PETER M. ROGOFF, Administrator, U.S. Army Federal Corps of Engineers, Transit Administration, Washington, DC U.S.DOT APTA JOSEPH C. SZABO, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT SECRETARY POLLY TROTTENBERG, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS ROBERT L. VAN ANTWERP (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding TRB General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of June 2009. *Membership as of October 2009. *Membership *Membership as of October 2009. as of October 2009.

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP Synthesis 82 Transit Fare Arrangements for Public Employees A Synthesis of Transit Practice Consultant DANIEL K. BOYLE Dan Boyle and Associates San Diego, California S ubscriber C ategories Public Transportation Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP SYNTHESIS 82 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and Project J-7, Topic SH-11 energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current ISSN 1073-4880 systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand ISBN 978-0-309-14250-2 Library of Congress Control Number 2009938316 service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. lems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by COPYRIGHT INFORMATION which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copy- 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 right to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce mate- and based on a study sponsored by the Federal Transit Administra- rial in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is tion (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Associa- given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, tion (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation problem-solving research. TCRP, modeled after the long-standing and endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, under- reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses takes research and other technical activities in response to the needs will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced of transit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equip- ment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and NOTICE administrative practices. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Coopera- TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- tive Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act approval reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the project concerned of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlin- is appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National ing TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating Research Council. organizations: FTA, the National Academy of Sciences, acting through The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Develop- and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The ment Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the that performed the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate by independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and the technical panel, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Board, the Transit Development Corporation, the National Research Council, or Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the respon- Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel sibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation identifying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Research Council. The Transportation Research Board of The National Academies, the Tran- Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed sit Development Corporation, the National Research Council, and the Federal by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- Transit Administration (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative Research Program) als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by completeness of the project reporting. TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without Published reports of the compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- are available from: nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: transit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of Transportation Research Board research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for work- Washington, DC 20001 shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. and can be ordered through the Internet at: The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the ser- vices of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advis- ing the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and prog- ress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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TCRP Committee for Project J-7 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHAIR CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative DWIGHT A. FERRELL Research Programs Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority GWEN CHISHOLM SMITH, Senior Program Officer EILEEN DELANEY, Director of Publications MEMBERS DEBRA W. ALEXANDER Capital Area Transportation Authority, Lansing, MI TCRP SYNTHESIS STAFF DONNA DeMARTINO STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special San Joaquin Regional Transit District, Stockton, CA Programs JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and MARK W. FUHRMANN Metro Transit, MinneapolisSt, Paul, MN Synthesis Studies DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer ROBERT H. IRWIN Consultant, Calgary, AB, Canada DON TIPPMAN, Editor Demisha Williams, Senior Program Assistant DONNA KELSAY Debbie Irvin, Program Associate San Joaquin Regional Transit District, Stockton, CA PAUL J. LARROUSSE Rutgers,The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick TOPIC PANEL DAVID A. LEE PAUL BALLARD, Nashville Metropolitan Transit Authority Connecticut Transit, Hartford LIISA ECOLA, RAND Corporation, Arlington, VA FRANK T. MARTIN DWIGHT A. FERRELL, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid PSB&J, Tallahassee, FL Transit Agency EMEKA MONEME N. JAMES FRICK, Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Authority Hayward M. Seymore III DAVID A. LEE, Connecticut Transit, Hartford Kitsap Transit, Bremerton, WA MARTINE A. MICOZZI, Transportation Research Board PAM WARD DONNA MURRAY, Washington Metropolitan Area Ottumwa Transit Authority, Ottumwa, IA Transit Agency G. SCOTT RUTHERFORD, University of Washington, Seattle TOM STRADER, Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation FTA LIAISON District, Portland, OR LISA COLBERT ANN CIHON, Federal Transit Administration (Liaison) Federal Transit Administration MICHAEL BALTES Federal Transit Administration TRB LIAISON PETER SHAW Transportation Research Board Cover Figure: Tennessee Swipe and Ride card. Courtesy: Tennessee DOT.

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Foreword Transit administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which informa- tion already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and prac- tice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviat- ing the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the transit industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire transit community, the Transit Cooperative Research Program Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, TCRP Project J-7, "Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems," searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute a TCRP report series, Synthesis of Transit Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. Preface The purpose of this synthesis is to document the state of the practice for transit agencies in By Donna Vlasak terms of fare arrangements for public employees. Results of a cross-section survey of tran- sit agencies in North America yielded information on important issues such as leadership Senior Program Officer of the program; barriers, obstacles, and constraints; administrative procedures; implemen- Transportation tation; lessons learned; cost, financing, and pricing; and program evaluation. Research Board Thirty-one completed surveys were received from 43 transit agencies, yielding a 72% response rate. Twelve transit agencies shared lessons learned from the implementation of 18 fare programs for public employees. Six case study agencies provide additional details on innovative and successful practices, as well as comments on other issues related to pub- lic employee pass programs. This synthesis was prepared by Dan Boyle, Dan Boyle & Associates, Inc., San Diego, California, under the guidance of a panel of experts in the subject area. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

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Contents 1 SUMMARY 5 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Project Background and Objectives, 5 Technical Approach, 5 Organization of This Report, 7 8 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction, 8 Previous TCRP Studies, 8 Program Surveys, 8 Specific Programs, 9 Summary, 9 10 CHAPTER THREE SURVEY RESULTS: PUBLIC EMPLOYEE FARE PROGRAMS Introduction, 10 Types of Programs, 10 Program Goals, 10 Program Administration, 11 Program Implementation, 13 Summary, 14 16 CHAPTER FOUR AGENCY ASSESSMENT OF PUBLIC EMPLOYEE FARE PROGRAMS Introduction, 16 Satisfaction with Public Employee Fare Programs, 16 Lessons Learned, 17 Summary, 19 20 CHAPTER FIVE CASE STUDIES Introduction, 20 Capital Metro, Austin, Texas, 20 King County Metro, Seattle, Washington, 22 Monroe County Transportation Authority, Monroe County, Pennsylvania, 25 Nashville Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Nashville, Tennessee, 26 Intercity Transit, Olympia, Washington, 28 TriMet (Tri-County Metropolitan Transit District), Portland, Oregon, 31 33 CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS Introduction, 33 Program Goals and Implementation, 33 Agency Assessment of Public Employee Fare Programs, 33 Lessons Learned--Survey Respondents, 34 Lessons Learned--Case Studies, 34 Conclusions and Areas of Future Study, 35 37 REFERENCES 38 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

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39 APPENDIX A TCRP SYNTHESIS SURVEY 65 APPENDIX B TCRP SYNTHESIS SURVEY RESULTS 79 APPENDIX C LIST OF PARTICIPATING TRANSIT AGENCIES 81 APPENDIX DlIST OF ACRONYMS